Abstract

Spatial–spectral approach with spatially adaptive classification of hyperspectral images is proposed. The rotation-invariant spatial texture information for each object is exploited and incorporated into the classifier by using the modified local Gabor binary pattern to distinguish different types of classes of interest. The proposed method can effectively suppress anisotropic texture in spatially separate classes as well as improve the discrimination among classes. Moreover, it becomes more robust with the within-class variation. Experimental results on the classification of three real hyperspectral remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Huang, L. Zhang, and P. Li, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 2 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Jun and J. Ghosh, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Tan and B. Triggs, in International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 235–249.
  10. W. Zhang, S. Shan, and W. Gao, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 786–791.
  11. T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 7 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zhang, A. Berg, M. Maire, and J. Malik, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2126–2136.
  13. Y. Zhang, ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54, 1(1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

G. Jun and J. Ghosh, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Hyde, J. Schmidt, M. Havrilla, and S. Cain, Opt. Lett. 35, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

X. Huang, L. Zhang, and P. Li, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 2 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Zhang, ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54, 1(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Archibald, R.

Arnason, K.

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aronsson, M.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benediktsson, J.

Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berg, A.

H. Zhang, A. Berg, M. Maire, and J. Malik, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2126–2136.

Bhaduri, B.

Bian, X.

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bright, E.

Cain, S.

M. Hyde, J. Schmidt, M. Havrilla, and S. Cain, Opt. Lett. 35, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chanussot, J.

Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chippendale, B.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chovit, C.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chrien, T.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Acqua, F.

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, M.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faust, J.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fauvel, M.

Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferari, A.

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Filippi, A.

Gamba, P.

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

W. Zhang, S. Shan, and W. Gao, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 786–791.

Ghosh, J.

G. Jun and J. Ghosh, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, R.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Havrilla, M.

M. Hyde, J. Schmidt, M. Havrilla, and S. Cain, Opt. Lett. 35, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, L. Zhang, and P. Li, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 2 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, M.

M. Hyde, J. Schmidt, M. Havrilla, and S. Cain, Opt. Lett. 35, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jun, G.

G. Jun and J. Ghosh, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

X. Huang, L. Zhang, and P. Li, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 2 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maenpaa, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maire, M.

H. Zhang, A. Berg, M. Maire, and J. Malik, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2126–2136.

Malik, J.

H. Zhang, A. Berg, M. Maire, and J. Malik, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2126–2136.

Ojala, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olah, M.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmason, J.

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pavri, B.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pietikainen, M.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarture, C.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

M. Hyde, J. Schmidt, M. Havrilla, and S. Cain, Opt. Lett. 35, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shan, S.

W. Zhang, S. Shan, and W. Gao, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 786–791.

Solis, M.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, X.

X. Tan and B. Triggs, in International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 235–249.

Tarabalka, Y.

Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Triggs, B.

X. Tan and B. Triggs, in International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 235–249.

Williams, O.

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, A. Berg, M. Maire, and J. Malik, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2126–2136.

Zhang, L.

X. Huang, L. Zhang, and P. Li, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 2 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, S. Shan, and W. Gao, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 786–791.

Zhang, X.

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54, 1(1999).
[CrossRef]

Cogn. Comput. (1)

X. Bian, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Yan, and B. Li, Cogn. Comput. 4, 2 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (3)

X. Huang, L. Zhang, and P. Li, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 2 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tarabalka, M. Fauvel, J. Chanussot, and J. Benediktsson, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 7, 736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Dell’Acqua, P. Gamba, A. Ferari, J. Palmason, J. Benediktsson, and K. Arnason, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 1, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

G. Jun and J. Ghosh, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. (1)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

Y. Zhang, ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54, 1(1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. Hyde, J. Schmidt, M. Havrilla, and S. Cain, Opt. Lett. 35, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

R. Green, M. Eastwood, C. Sarture, T. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. Chippendale, J. Faust, B. Pavri, C. Chovit, M. Solis, M. Olah, and O. Williams, Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Zhang, A. Berg, M. Maire, and J. Malik, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2126–2136.

X. Tan and B. Triggs, in International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 235–249.

W. Zhang, S. Shan, and W. Gao, in IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2005), pp. 786–791.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral and spatial features for different classes. All the features were normalized to [0,1]. From left to right on each plot: the first three spectral and the latter 10 spatial histogram features extracted by our method from each ground class.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Classification maps for different features on Indian Pines image. (a)–(d) Classification maps for RGB, GLCM, LGBP, and MLGBP features, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Accuracy statistics for different classifiers versus different feature sets on Indian Pines image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Classification Accuracies in Percentages Except for Kappa by SVM for Different Feature Sets on Indian Pines Imagea

Tables Icon

Table 2. Classification Accuracies in Percentages Except for Kappa by SVM for Different Feature Sets on KSC Imagea

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MLGBP={min{ROR(p=0P1s(gigc)2p,i)|i=0,1,,P1}ifU(LBPP,R)2P+1otherwise,
U(LBPP,R)=|s(gP1gc)s(g0gc)|+|i=1P1s(gigc)s(gP1gc)|,

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