Abstract

In this Letter, we propose an optical configuration of a four-domain vertical-alignment (VA) liquid-crystal (LC) cell, which can improve the γ-curve distortion by using a pair of patterned A plates, without any change in cell structure. In order to find the optimal parameter value of the patterned A film, we calculated the polarization difference between the normal direction and the all-viewing direction as functions of the optical axes and the retardation (Δnd) under the voltage applied state. Based on the calculated results, the proposed LC cell showed an improvement in γ-curve distortion of more than 80% in each oblique viewing angle compared to a conventional wide-view VA LC cell, without any loss of optical performance in the dark state.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127(1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).
  5. K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.
  6. K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).
  7. Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).
  10. J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Ji, J.-M. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 395–398.
  12. Q. Hong, T. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 13, 8318 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Goldstein, Polarized Light (Dekker, 2003), Chap. 26.2.1, p. 517.
  14. B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 13, 8318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

1997

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).

1995

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1971

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127(1971).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. L.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Chida, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

Choi, J.-M.

S.-H. Ji, J.-M. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 395–398.

Goldstein, D.

D. Goldstein, Polarized Light (Dekker, 2003), Chap. 26.2.1, p. 517.

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127(1971).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Q.

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 13, 8318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ji, S.-H.

S.-H. Ji, J.-M. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 395–398.

Kamada, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Kang, W. S.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, S.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

Kim, S. N.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

Koike, Y.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Ji, J.-M. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 395–398.

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

Lee, S. H.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D.-E.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Lu, R.

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 13, 8318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mun, B.-J.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohmuro, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).

Okamoto, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Park, S. B.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

Sasabayashi, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

Sasaki, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127(1971).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. K.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

Souk, J. H.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

Takeda, A.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

Tanaka, R.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Tsuda, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

Ueda, K.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

Wu, T. X.

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. C.

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

Zheng, Z.

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Q. Hong, T. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 13, 8318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127(1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dig. Tech. Papers

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, Dig. Tech. Papers 28, 845 (1997).

Displays

J. Ma, Y. C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, Displays 30, 185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

B.-J. Mun, D.-E. Lim, W. S. Kang, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 1204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

SID Dig. Tech. Papers

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, SID Dig. Tech. Papers 29, 1077 (1998).

Other

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383–386.

S.-H. Ji, J.-M. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, in Proceedings of the 15th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 395–398.

H. Yoshida, T. Kamada, K. Ueda, R. Tanaka, Y. Koike, K. Okamoto, P. L. Chen, and J. Lin, in Asia Display/IMID’04 (Korean Information Display Society, 2004).

D. Goldstein, Polarized Light (Dekker, 2003), Chap. 26.2.1, p. 517.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of the optical configuration of a conventional 4-D wide-view VA LC cell and the LC director configuration in each domain: (a) optical configuration and (b) LC director configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated (a) V–T curve and (b) γ curve in a conventional wide-view PVA LC cell.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization positions of light passing through the conventional wide-view PVA LC cell in normal and oblique directions in each domain at V=2.5V.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated Δp of the pair of A plates at an all-viewing angle in (a) 45°, 225° and (b) 135°, 315° domain areas.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Polarization positions of light passing through the proposed 4-D VA LC cell in normal and oblique directions in each domain at V=2.5V.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Proposed optical structure of the 4-D VA LC cell.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated (a) V–T curve and (b) γ curve in the proposed wide-view 4-D VA LC cell.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison between the iso-contrast of (a) conventional wide-view PVA LC cell and (b) proposed 4-D VA LC cell.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δp=(S1(A)S1(p))+(S2(A)S2(p))+(S3(A)S3(p)),I=I0cos2(Δp2),
Retardation(VALC+NegativeC)=0,
Retardation(NegativeA+PositiveA)=0.
GDI=AVG|Li(on-axis)Li(off-axis)|i=0255,

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