Abstract

We report in this Letter the resonant coupling mechanism in bending trenched bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). It is found that among the trench parameters, the core-trench distance is predominant for optimized BIF design. We reveal that resonant coupling is an intrinsic characteristic of bending trenched BIF, and resonant coupling between the fiber core and the innermost cladding would limit the ultimate bending loss of BIF under tight bend. Resonant coupling is also present in double-trenched BIF, and would impair its bending performance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Faustini and G. Martini, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Achten, F.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

Bickham, S. R.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Bjerregaard, J.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Boivin, D.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

Bookbinder, D. C.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Borel, P. I.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Carlson, K.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

de Montmorillon, L.-A.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

Desorcie, R. B.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Engelbert, J. J.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Farrell, G.

Faustini, L.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Freir, T.

Geerings, S.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

Gooijer, F.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

Guan, N.

Han, W.-T.

Himeno, K.

Hogari, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. J.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Ju, S.

Koshiba, M.

Kristensen, P.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Legrand, C.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

Lewis, K. A.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Li, M.-J.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Marcuse, D.

Martin, C. J.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Martini, G.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Matthijjsse, P.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

McCurdy, A.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

McDermott, M. A.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Meersseman, X.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

Molin, D.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

Montaigne, N.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Provost, L.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

Ramachandran, S.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Saitoh, K.

Sankawa, I.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seop Lee, Y.

Sik Yoon, Y.

Sillard, P.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

Tajima, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, P.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

Trevor, D.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Tsuchida, Y.

Wada, A.

Wang, Q.

Watekar, P. R.

Weimann, P. A.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Wisk, P. W.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Yablon, A. D.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Yan, M. F.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

Zhou, J.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

L.-A. de Montmorillon, F. Gooijer, N. Montaigne, S. Geerings, D. Boivin, L. Provost, and P. Sillard, in Proc. of OFC/NFOEC2009 (IEEE, , 2009), paper OTuL3.

J. M. Fini, P. I. Borel, P. A. Weimann, M. F. Yan, S. Ramachandran, A. D. Yablon, P. W. Wisk, D. Trevor, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Bjerregaard, P. Kristensen, K. Carlson, C. J. Martin, and A. McCurdy, in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 2009), paper OTuL4.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Matthijjsse, F. Gooijer, D. Molin, F. Achten, X. Meersseman, and C. Legrand, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2006), paper Mo3.3.2.

M.-J. Li, P. Tandon, D. C. Bookbinder, S. R. Bickham, M. A. McDermott, R. B. Desorcie, D. A. Nolan, J. J. Johnson, K. A. Lewis, and J. J. Engelbert, in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP10.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of measured and calculated bending losses as a function of bending radius at wavelengths of 1310 and 1550 nm for SMF-28 fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive-index profile of the trenched BIF and its parameters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Bending loss evolution as a function of core-trench separation b with bending radius 5 mm at wavelength 1550 nm. The insets show the equivalent modified refractive-index profile for points A and B, respectively. (b) Mode profile at point A. (c) Mode profile at point B.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Location of point A and point B evolution as a function of trench index for different trench widths with bending radius 5 mm at wavelength 1550 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Bending losses of single trenched BIF (ST BIF) and double-trenched BIF (DT BIF) as a function of bending radius at wavelength 1550 nm with different widths of the third cladding. The insets represent its corresponding index profiles.

Equations (1)

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2α=Im[2πΨBW(0,0)β0Ψ02dxdy],

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