Abstract

Although surface-plasmon-coupled emission-based fluorescence microscopy proves high sensitivity for surface imaging, its donut shape point spread function (PSF) leads to low optical resolution and inefficient signal collection. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of solving this problem by the use of a liquid-crystal plate, which could convert the polarization state of surface-plasmon-coupled fluorescence from radial to linear. After being focused by the collection lens, an Airy disk-like PSF of small size can be realized. Experimental results reveal that both the lateral resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio can be enhanced simultaneously.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
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C. J. Regan, R. Rodriguez, S. C. Gourshetty, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, Opt Express 20, 20827 (2012).
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Berthelot, J.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borejdo, J.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
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Bouhelier, A.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
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D. Zhang, X. Yuan, and A. Bouhelier, Appl Opt. 49, 875 (2010).
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D. G. Zhang, X.-C. Yuan, A. Bouhelier, P. Wang, and H. Ming, Opt. Lett. 35, 408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Cai, W. P.

S. H. Cao, W. P. Cai, Q. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 317 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Calander, N.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, S. H.

S. H. Cao, W. P. Cai, Q. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 317 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chung, E.

Colas des Francs, G.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

Ebbesen, T. W.

Fu, Q.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).

Genet, C.

Gourshetty, S. C.

C. J. Regan, R. Rodriguez, S. C. Gourshetty, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, Opt Express 20, 20827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grave de Peralta, L.

C. J. Regan, R. Rodriguez, S. C. Gourshetty, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, Opt Express 20, 20827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartmnn, N.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

Hu, H. D.

H. D. Hu, C. N. Ma, and Z. W. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huant, S.

Kim, Y.-H.

Krenn, J. R.

Lakowicz, J. R.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Li, Y. Q.

S. H. Cao, W. P. Cai, Q. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 317 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

S. H. Cao, W. P. Cai, Q. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 317 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

H. D. Hu, C. N. Ma, and Z. W. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C. N.

H. D. Hu, C. N. Ma, and Z. W. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Zhang, X.-C. Yuan, A. Bouhelier, P. Wang, and H. Ming, Opt. Lett. 35, 408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mollet, O.

Muthu, P.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piredda, G.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Regan, C. J.

C. J. Regan, R. Rodriguez, S. C. Gourshetty, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, Opt Express 20, 20827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, R.

C. J. Regan, R. Rodriguez, S. C. Gourshetty, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, Opt Express 20, 20827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

So, P. T. C.

Stalder, M.

Stein, B.

Tang, W. T.

Wang, J.

Wang, P.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Zhang, X.-C. Yuan, A. Bouhelier, P. Wang, and H. Ming, Opt. Lett. 35, 408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yao, P.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yew, E. Y. S.

Yi, M.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

Yuan, X.

D. Zhang, X. Yuan, and A. Bouhelier, Appl Opt. 49, 875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhan, Q. W.

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, X. Yuan, and A. Bouhelier, Appl Opt. 49, 875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. G.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, C.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.

S. H. Cao, W. P. Cai, Q. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 317 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl Opt.

D. Zhang, X. Yuan, and A. Bouhelier, Appl Opt. 49, 875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. D. Hu, C. N. Ma, and Z. W. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and Z. Gryczynski, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307, 435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).

Nano Lett.

N. Hartmnn, G. Piredda, J. Berthelot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, and A. Hartschuh, Nano Lett. 12, 177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt Express

C. J. Regan, R. Rodriguez, S. C. Gourshetty, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, Opt Express 20, 20827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Plasmonics

D. Zhang, Q. Fu, M. Yi, X. Wang, Y. Chen, P. Wang, Y. Lu, P. Yao, and H. Ming, Plasmonics 7, 309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of fluorescence microscopy: P1 and P2, linear polarizers; BS, beam splitter; and RPC, radial polarization converter. RPC and P2 constitute the polarization converter. The fluorescence spectrum of the FPSs under excitation of the 532 nm laser is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

BFP fluorescence images recorded by the CCD camera in the case of no RPC (a) without P2 and (b)–(d) with P2 oriented at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. BFP fluorescence images in the case of RPC (e) without P2 and (f)–(h) with P2 oriented at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. The polarizations of the polarizer are indicated by the white arrows.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated electric-field intensity distribution on the image plane of a low NA lens. The incident hollow beams are radially polarized (a) and linearly polarized (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Direct space florescence images captured by the CCD (a) without and (c) with the polarization converter. (b), (d) Fluorescence intensity distributions along the red dashed lines indicated in (a) and (c).

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