Abstract

We report a stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer chip implemented in silicon microphotonic waveguides. The device comprises an array of 32 Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) with linearly increasing optical path delays between the MZI arms across the array. The optical delays are achieved by using Si-wire waveguides arranged in tightly coiled spirals with a compact device footprint of 12mm2. Spectral retrieval is demonstrated in a single measurement of the stationary spatial interferogram formed at the output waveguides of the array, with a wavelength resolution of 40 pm within a free spectral range of 0.75 nm. The phase and amplitude errors arising from fabrication imperfections are compensated using a transformation matrix spectral retrieval algorithm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Bock, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. V. Velasco, A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, T. J. Hall, and M. L. Calvo, Opt. Express 20, 19882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

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G. H. Golub and C. Reinsch, Numer. Math. 14, 403 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1954 (1)

Aoyagi, H.

Baets, R.

Balakrishnan, A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bock, P.

Bock, P. J.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Brouckaert, J.

Calvo, M. L.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. V. Velasco, A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, T. J. Hall, and M. L. Calvo, Opt. Express 20, 19882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cardon, J. G.

Charbonneau, S.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. V. Velasco, A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, T. J. Hall, and M. L. Calvo, Opt. Express 20, 19882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Florjańczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 18176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Lett. 30, 1824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, “Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings,” in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M. L. Calvo and V. Laksminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), pp. 173–230.

Cloutier, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conway, R. R.

Delâge, A.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. V. Velasco, A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, T. J. Hall, and M. L. Calvo, Opt. Express 20, 19882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Dossou, K.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Englert, C. R.

Erickson, L.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Filler, A. S.

Florjanczyk, M.

Gao, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Golub, G. H.

G. H. Golub and C. Reinsch, Numer. Math. 14, 403 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Harlander, J. M.

Inoue, Y.

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinot, P.

Janz, S.

Kitoh, T.

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Mizuno, T.

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oguma, M.

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Packirisamy, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Powell, I.

Reinsch, C.

G. H. Golub and C. Reinsch, Numer. Math. 14, 403 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Rooks, M.

Schmid, J.

Schmid, J. H.

Scott, A.

Sekaric, L.

Solheim, B.

Takada, K.

Takahasi, H.

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D.

Velasco, A. V.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. V. Velasco, A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, T. J. Hall, and M. L. Calvo, Opt. Express 20, 19882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Waldron, P.

Xia, F.

Xu, D.-X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Electron. Lett. 48, 715 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D.-X. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, and H. Takahasi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Numer. Math. (1)

G. H. Golub and C. Reinsch, Numer. Math. 14, 403 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

P. Cheben, “Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings,” in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M. L. Calvo and V. Laksminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), pp. 173–230.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical micrograph of the fabricated spatial heterodyne FT spectrometer chip with spiral Si-wire waveguides. Inset: magnified view of the spiral structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental measurement of the output power distribution of the 32 MZIs for a 2 nm wavelength scan near 1.55 μm wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of a narrowband laser source (solid curve) and two doublets of two monochromatic lines separated by 56 pm (dotted curve) and 80 pm (dashed curve), experimentally retrieved with the spatial heterodyne FT spectrometer chip.

Equations (4)

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I(xi)=0FSRB(σ¯)cos2πσ¯xidσ¯,
δλ=λ02ΔLmaxng,
FSR=δλN2,
V=ImaxIminImax+Imin=2I1I2I1+I2,

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