Abstract

We report experimentally on extreme events in the pulsating dynamics of an optical time-delayed system, i.e., a diode laser subject to a phase-conjugate feedback. We study the effect of the feedback strength on extreme events’ properties. We show a transition to non-Gaussian statistics of the pulse intensity and an increased number of extreme events as the mirror reflectivity increases. The extreme event pulse is anticipated and followed by smaller pulses with time-delay periodicity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).
  2. H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 3644 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Kovalsky, A. A. Hnilo, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Lett. 36, 4449 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Green and B. Krauskopf, Opt. Commun. 231, 383 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kovalsky, A. A. Hnilo, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Lett. 36, 4449 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Green and B. Krauskopf, Opt. Commun. 231, 383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F. T.

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bailung, H.

H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barland, S.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonatto, C.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Feyereisen, M.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

Giudici, M.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, K.

K. Green and B. Krauskopf, Opt. Commun. 231, 383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henning, I. D.

K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hnilo, A. A.

Hurtado, A.

K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karsaklian Dal Bosco, A.

M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kharif, C.

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kovalsky, M. G.

Krauskopf, B.

K. Green and B. Krauskopf, Opt. Commun. 231, 383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenzini, F.

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masoller, C.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Montina, A.

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pelinovsky, E.

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Residori, S.

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rios Leite, J. R.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schires, K.

K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sciamanna, M.

M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. K.

H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Slunyaev, A.

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taki, M.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tredicce, J. R.

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kovalsky, A. A. Hnilo, and J. R. Tredicce, Opt. Lett. 36, 4449 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Virte, M.

M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wolfersberger, D.

M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Schires, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 48, 872 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fluct. Noise Lett. (1)

S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, F. Lenzini, and F. T. Arecchi, Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Green and B. Krauskopf, Opt. Commun. 231, 383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Virte, A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Phys. Rev. A 84, 043836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 84, 016604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. R. Rios Leite, and J. R. Tredicce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. Beam 1 (5) is the emitted PCF beam. Beams 3 and 4 create the transmission grating. The mirror reflectivity is varied using a neutral density filter. (b) Extreme event pulse (AI=2.23).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time traces and histograms of the laser power for increasing R. Red horizontal and vertical lines are thresholds for extreme events.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Number of extreme events and (b) statistical distribution of the output power when increasing R.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Time series centered on one single extreme event and (b) superposition of 70 extreme events with corresponding averaged output power (yellow).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Statistical distribution of the time between extreme events for R=4.4% (blue) and R=7% (red).

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