Abstract

Since its discovery during the 1930s the Čerenkov effect (light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium) has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. The ability of the emitted light to describe a charged particle’s trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, to our knowledge, all applications of the process to date have focused on the identification of particles themselves, rather than their effect upon the surroundings through which they travel. Here we explore a novel application of the Čerenkov effect for the recovery of the spatial distribution of ionizing radiation energy deposition in a medium and apply it to the issue of dose determination in medical physics. By capturing multiple projection images of the Čerenkov light induced by a medical linear accelerator x-ray photon beam, we demonstrate the successful three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of the imparted dose distribution.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. C. Röntgen, Nature 53, 274 (1896).
  2. M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).
  3. P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
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2013

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

1968

K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1959

M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).

1896

W. C. Röntgen, Nature 53, 274 (1896).

Almond, P. R.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, L.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, A.

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beddar, S.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biggs, P. J.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boher, P.

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Briere, T. M.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carnell, K. H.

K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Collomb-Patton, V.

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coursey, B. M.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. C.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, P.

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

Fontbonne, J.-M.

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gillin, M. T.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gladstone, D. J.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, A. K.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gore, J. C.

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

Gortmans, N. C.

K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, W. F.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huq, M. S.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ibbott, G. S.

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

Karzmark, C. J.

M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).

Leroux, T.

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maryanski, M. J.

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

McClatchy, D. M.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, R.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nath, R.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pataky, C.

K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Podgorsak, E. B.

E. B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students (IAEA, 2005).

Pogue, B. W.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ponisch, F.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, D. W. O.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Röntgen, W. C.

W. C. Röntgen, Nature 53, 274 (1896).

Sahoo, N.

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R. J.

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

Selby, A. H.

M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).

Steele, R. E.

M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).

Vela, A.

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, W. H. A.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weissbluth, M.

M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).

Welford, W. T.

K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

P. R. Almond, P. J. Biggs, B. M. Coursey, W. F. Hanson, M. S. Huq, R. Nath, and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Collomb-Patton, P. Boher, T. Leroux, J.-M. Fontbonne, A. Vela, and A. Batalla, Med. Phys. 36, 317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Ponisch, L. Archambault, T. M. Briere, N. Sahoo, R. Mohan, S. Beddar, and M. T. Gillin, Med. Phys. 36, 1478 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Maryanski, G. S. Ibbott, P. Eastman, R. J. Schulz, and J. C. Gore, Med. Phys. 23, 699 (1996).

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, D. M. McClatchy, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Med. Phys. 40, 012101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. C. Röntgen, Nature 53, 274 (1896).

Opt. Acta

K. H. Carnell, N. C. Gortmans, W. T. Welford, and C. Pataky, Opt. Acta 15, 187 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. K. Glaser, S. C. Davis, W. H. A. Voigt, R. Zhang, B. W. Pogue, and D. J. Gladstone, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Radiology

M. Weissbluth, C. J. Karzmark, R. E. Steele, and A. H. Selby, Radiology 72, 242 (1959).

Other

E. B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students (IAEA, 2005).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MP4 (1501 KB)     
» Media 2: MP4 (1543 KB)     
» Media 3: MP4 (930 KB)     
» Media 4: MP4 (904 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental schematic of the proposed optical dosimetry system. The telecentric lens captures optical rays emerging from the transparent water tank that are nearly parallel to the optical axis and focuses them onto the ICCD. The two field shapes corresponding to the primary and multileaf collimator are shown in green. (b) Atomic diagram of the radiation transport interactions governing electron energy loss in water. (c) Electron energy loss per unit path length, resulting in local energy deposition and emitted Čerenkov photons as a function of electron energy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (d) Sinograms and (b), (e) reconstructed cross sections for fields A and B, respectively. (c), (f) Full 3D reconstructions of fields A and B. The intensity decreases with depth as a result of exponential attenuation of the radiation beam. The full image data sets used to construct (a) and (d) (Media 3 and Media 4), as well as multimedia files for (c) and (f) (Media 1 and Media 2), are included in the supplementary material.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the reconstructed central-axis light profile for field A with the known dose profile.

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