Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-order photonic differentiator using on-chip complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible cascaded microring resonators, including first-, second-, and third-order differentiators. All the microring resonator units have a radius of 150 μm and a free spectral range of 80 GHz. The microring resonator can implement the first-order derivative of the optical field near its critical coupling region. Hence higher-order differentiation can be obtained by cascading more microring units on a single chip. For the periodical Gaussian optical pulse injection, the average deviations of all differentiators are less than 6.2%. The differentiation of pseudo-random bit sequence signals at 5Gbit/s is also demonstrated. Our scheme is a compact and low-power-consumption solution since the cascaded microring units are fabricated with compact size on the silicon-on-insulator substrate.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Azana, IEEE Photonics J. 2, 359 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Ashrafi and J. Azaña, Opt. Express 20, 2626 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Park, M. Kulishov, and R. Slavik, Opt. Express 14, 12670 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Li, D. Janner, J. Yao, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Express 17, 19798 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Azana and M. Kulishov, Electron. Lett. 41, 1368 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Shahoei, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 730 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. M. Rivas, S. Boudreau, Y. Park, R. Slavik, S. LaRochelle, A. Carballar, and J. Azana, Opt. Lett. 34, 1792 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Liu, T. Wang, L. Qiang, T. Ye, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, Opt. Express 16, 15880 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.
  13. Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

H. Shahoei, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 730 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ashrafi and J. Azaña, Opt. Express 20, 2626 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Azana, IEEE Photonics J. 2, 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Azana and M. Kulishov, Electron. Lett. 41, 1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

H. Shahoei, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 730 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ashrafi, R.

Azana, J.

J. Azana, IEEE Photonics J. 2, 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. L. M. Rivas, S. Boudreau, Y. Park, R. Slavik, S. LaRochelle, A. Carballar, and J. Azana, Opt. Lett. 34, 1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Azana and M. Kulishov, Electron. Lett. 41, 1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

Boudreau, S.

Carballar, A.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choa, F. S.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Janner, D.

Kam, C. H.

N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulishov, M.

Y. Park, M. Kulishov, and R. Slavik, Opt. Express 14, 12670 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Azana and M. Kulishov, Electron. Lett. 41, 1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

Li, M.

M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, D. Janner, J. Yao, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Express 17, 19798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Li, Z.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Liu, F.

Luo, B.

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Pruneri, V.

Qiang, L.

Qiu, M.

Rivas, D. L. M.

Shahoei, H.

H. Shahoei, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 730 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

Su, Y.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, T. Wang, L. Qiang, T. Ye, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, Opt. Express 16, 15880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Tjin, S. C.

N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Xiao, X.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

H. Shahoei, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 730 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, D. Janner, J. Yao, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Express 17, 19798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.

Yu, J.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Yu, S. F.

N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Zhang, L.

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

Zhang, X.

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Azana and M. Kulishov, Electron. Lett. 41, 1368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

J. Azana, IEEE Photonics J. 2, 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, Y. Yu, Y. Zhang, B. Luo, T. Yang, and X. Zhang, IEEE Photonics J. 3, 996 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Li, L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Shahoei, J. Albert, and J. Yao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 730 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, J. Opt. 14, 065501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Q. Ngo, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, Opt. Commun. 230, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

Y. Hu, L. Zhang, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Li, Y. Su, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 68–70.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a)–(c) are microscope images of silicon microring resonators with one microring (Microring-1), two microrings (Microring-2), and three microrings (Microring-3). And (d),(e) are SEM images of the grating coupler, and the coupling region between the bus waveguide and the bending waveguide, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured and ideal transfer functions for (a) first-order, (b) second-order, and (c) third-order DIFFs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for the high-order DIFFs with the on-chip microring resonators.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results for high-order DIFFs. (a) Input pulse and (b)–(d) temporal waveforms for first-, second-, and third-order DIFFs, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

M0, input NRZ PRBS signals at 5Gbit/s; M1 and C1, measured and calculated waveforms for first-order DIFFs; M2 and C2, measured and calculated waveforms for second-order DIFFs; M3 and C3, measured and calculated waveforms for third-order DIFFs; insets, eye patterns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Parameters of Microring Resonators

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