Abstract

The capacitive response noise has been problematic for high-speed single photon detection based on gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. Traditionally, the noise must be suppressed by complex electronic circuit if low afterpulse probability is desired. In this Letter, we propose a compact and flexible method for noise cancellation, which gates the photodiode with a Gaussian pulse. Because of the differential effect of junction capacitor, the shape of the capacitive response output in our method is the first-order derivative of the Gaussian function that can be matched by the rising edge of a delayed and attenuated version of the gating pulse itself. With matching signal, the avalanche pulse is raised onto a flat platform that can be easily discriminated from the background. For 1550 nm optical signal, the detection efficiency could reach 10.2% with 9.7×106 per gate dark count probability and 3.4% afterpulse probability at 80 MHz gating frequency. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method can decrease the afterpulse probability sharply while maintaining the detection efficiency and dark count performance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Protiva, J. Mrkvica, and J. Machac, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2401 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Cho and S. K. Kang, Opt. Express 19, 18510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, S. Yorozu, and A. Tomita, Opt. Express 19, 20531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Protiva, J. Mrkvica, and J. Machac, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, Opt. Express 17, 6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

Adachi, S.

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, Opt. Express 17, 6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, C.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. L.

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. K.

Diamanti, E.

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fujiwara, M.

Inoue, S.

Jian, Y.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. K.

Langrock, C.

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Machac, J.

P. Protiva, J. Mrkvica, and J. Machac, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mrkvica, J.

P. Protiva, J. Mrkvica, and J. Machac, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nambu, Y.

Namekata, N.

Protiva, P.

P. Protiva, J. Mrkvica, and J. Machac, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, M.

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Sasamori, S.

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Tanaka, A.

Thew, R.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Wu, E.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yorozu, S.

Yoshino, K.

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Liang, E. Wu, X. L. Chen, M. Ren, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 887 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. L. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Protiva, J. Mrkvica, and J. Machac, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The SPAD is cooled to 253 K.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Combined signal observed on the OSC. (a) Without matching signal. (b) With matching signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time histogram of detection events with illumination.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relationships between detection efficiency, dark count probability, and excess voltage under different gating width.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationships between detection efficiency, dark count, and afterpulse probabilities for the proposed method and conventional method without matching signal.

Equations (2)

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G(t)=12πσet2/2σ2,
G(t)=t2πσ3et2/2σ2,

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