Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method for free-space optical (FSO) communication, where the transmitter encodes data into a composite computer-generated hologram and the receiver decodes through a retrieved array of sidelobe-modulated optical vortices (SMOVs). By employing the SMOV generation and detection technique, the usual stringent alignment and phase-matching requirement of the detection of optical vortices is released. In transmitting a gray-scale picture with 180×180 pixels, a bit error rate as low as 3.01×103 has been achieved. Due to the orbital angular momentum multiplexing and spatial paralleling, this FSO communication method possesses the ability to greatly increase the capacity of data transmission.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. M. K. Liu, Principles and Applications of Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  2. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
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  10. J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
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2012 (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

C. S. Guo, S. J. Yue, and G. X. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2004 (5)

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Express 12, 5448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Vasnetsov, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 5550, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, New J. Phys. 6, 131(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Kotlyar, S. Khonina, and V. Soifer, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237(1972).

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S. F.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berge, R. E.

Bouchal, Z.

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, New J. Phys. 6, 131(2004).
[CrossRef]

Celechovský, R.

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, New J. Phys. 6, 131(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Express 12, 5448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Vasnetsov, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 5550, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C. Q.

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M. W.

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237(1972).

Gibson, G.

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Vasnetsov, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 5550, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Express 12, 5448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C. S.

C. S. Guo, S. J. Yue, and G. X. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khonina, S.

V. Kotlyar, S. Khonina, and V. Soifer, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, V.

V. Kotlyar, S. Khonina, and V. Soifer, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Liu, M. M. K.

M. M. K. Liu, Principles and Applications of Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Liu, Y. D.

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Express 12, 5448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Vasnetsov, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 5550, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. Q.

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237(1972).

Skeldon, K.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soifer, V.

V. Kotlyar, S. Khonina, and V. Soifer, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M.

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Vasnetsov, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 5550, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G. X.

C. S. Guo, S. J. Yue, and G. X. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, E.

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. C.

Yue, S. J.

C. S. Guo, S. J. Yue, and G. X. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Zhu, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. S. Guo, S. J. Yue, and G. X. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. Kotlyar, S. Khonina, and V. Soifer, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (2)

S. Franke-Arnold, S. Barnett, E. Yao, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, New J. Phys. 6, 131(2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. D. Liu, C. Q. Gao, M. W. Gao, X. Q. Qi, and H. Weber, Opt. Commun. 281, 3636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237(1972).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. F. Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Vasnetsov, and M. J. Padgett, Proc. SPIE 5550, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. M. K. Liu, Principles and Applications of Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical configuration of our FSO system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical SMOV intensity distribution. The peaks around r0=0.90mm refer to the principal ring, the other 8 peaks (r1=1.38, 1.50, 1.64, 1.80, 2.00, 2.25, 2.57, 3.00 mm) from left to right refer to the sidelobe of TC from 48 to 41, and the ratio is 0.65, 0.60, 0.55, 0.50, 0.45, 0.40, 0.35, and 0.30, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Principle of the whole encoding and decoding process and some experiment results. (a) The octave gray-scale image sample (180×180 pixels). (b) The 3×3 pixel arrays from a small part of the sample, and corresponding TCs in parentheses. (c) The optimized CCGH for encoding. (d) The far-field diffraction pattern of the CCGH captured by CCD. (e) The radii ratio values after processing of the SMOV array pattern in (d). The decimal (0.60 for instance) is the radii ratio, and the number (208 in parentheses) is the gray-scale value of the pixel. (f) The experimental result after being recovered.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distribution of optical intensity along the horizontal line in the SMOV array in Fig. 3(d). The corresponding TCs from left to right of the distribution are 43 (red; first four peaks; the number above the peak refers to its position coordinate along the horizontal line), 42 (blue; middle four peaks), 41 (purple; last four peaks), and the ratios are 0.409[=1.320.87)/(1.650.55)], 0.349, and 0.308, precisely coinciding with the theoretical 0.40, 0.35, and 0.30 in Table 1, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Relationship among Gray-Scale Value, TC, and Radii Ratio

Equations (2)

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Ψ=n=13m=13Emnψmn*(r,θ)exp[ikrρmncos(θφmn)],
P(r,θ)=Angle[n=13m=13Emnψmn*(r,θ)exp(ikrρmncos(θφmn))],

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