Abstract

This Letter presents a method for the design of metal nanosphere antenna arrays with broadband plasmonic field enhancement over the whole visible spectra. In particular, thanks to a customized hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), the plasmonic near-field enhancement and the sidelobe level are maximized and minimized, respectively, by thinning the nanoarray, optimizing the elements spacing and dimensions. In particular the problem is recast as an optimization one by defining a suitable cost function, which is then minimized with the HGA. The obtained preliminary results demonstrate the potentialities of the proposed approach.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012

P. Biagioni, J. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Kildishev, J. Borneman, K. Chen, and V. Drachev, Sensors 11, 7178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Donelli, A. Martini, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, Electron. Lett. 45, 1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 3800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, S. Boriskina, and L. Dal Negro, Opt. Express 17, 9648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Massa, M. Benedetti, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 205214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994

1988

B. T. Draine, Astrophys. J. 333, 848 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, Astrophys. J. 186, 705 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Azaro, R.

D. Franceschini, M. Donelli, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, “Future trends on nanoantennas synthesis,” in Proceedings of First International Conference on Nano-Networks and Workshops, Nanonet 2006, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) (2006).

Benedetti, M.

A. Massa, M. Benedetti, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 205214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S.

Borneman, J.

A. Kildishev, J. Borneman, K. Chen, and V. Drachev, Sensors 11, 7178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

A. Kildishev, J. Borneman, K. Chen, and V. Drachev, Sensors 11, 7178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

Donelli, M.

C. Forestiere, M. Donelli, G. Walsh, E. Zeni, G. Miano, and L. Dal Negro, Opt. Lett. 35, 133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, Electron. Lett. 45, 1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Donelli, A. Martini, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 3800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Massa, M. Benedetti, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 205214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Franceschini, M. Donelli, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, “Future trends on nanoantennas synthesis,” in Proceedings of First International Conference on Nano-Networks and Workshops, Nanonet 2006, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) (2006).

Drachev, V.

A. Kildishev, J. Borneman, K. Chen, and V. Drachev, Sensors 11, 7178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

Flatau, P. J.

Forestiere, C.

Franceschini, D.

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Franceschini, M. Donelli, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, “Future trends on nanoantennas synthesis,” in Proceedings of First International Conference on Nano-Networks and Workshops, Nanonet 2006, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) (2006).

Franceschini, G.

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-Optics(Cambridge University, 2006).

Hoekstra, A. G.

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holland, J. H.

J. H. Holland, Genetic Algorithm (Addison Wesley, 1989).

Huang, J.

P. Biagioni, J. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A.

A. Kildishev, J. Borneman, K. Chen, and V. Drachev, Sensors 11, 7178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

G. L. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martini, A.

M. Donelli, A. Martini, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massa, A.

M. Donelli, A. Martini, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, Electron. Lett. 45, 1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 3800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Massa, M. Benedetti, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 205214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Franceschini, M. Donelli, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, “Future trends on nanoantennas synthesis,” in Proceedings of First International Conference on Nano-Networks and Workshops, Nanonet 2006, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) (2006).

Miano, G.

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-Optics(Cambridge University, 2006).

Oliveri, G.

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 3800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, Electron. Lett. 45, 1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pastorino, M.

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, Astrophys. J. 186, 705 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, Astrophys. J. 186, 705 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Raffetto, M.

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubinacci, G.

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G.

Yurkin, M. A.

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, E.

Zhao, L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, Astrophys. J. 186, 705 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, Astrophys. J. 333, 848 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, Electron. Lett. 45, 1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. L. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

G. Oliveri, M. Donelli, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 3800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Massa, D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Donelli, A. Martini, and A. Massa, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 2491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Massa, M. Benedetti, and M. Donelli, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 205214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. B

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, W. E. Moerner, A. Sundaramurthy, and G. Kino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

P. Biagioni, J. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

A. Kildishev, J. Borneman, K. Chen, and V. Drachev, Sensors 11, 7178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Franceschini, M. Donelli, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, “Future trends on nanoantennas synthesis,” in Proceedings of First International Conference on Nano-Networks and Workshops, Nanonet 2006, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) (2006).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-Optics(Cambridge University, 2006).

J. H. Holland, Genetic Algorithm (Addison Wesley, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Problem geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Geometry of the optimized silver nanosphere array.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum field enhancement spectrum of the optimized silver nanosphere array.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power pattern of the optimized silver nanospheres array.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E¯scatt(r¯n)=1V0ε0Ap¯(r¯n)+14πε0·m=1,mnV[k2r¯nmCnmBnm(1r¯nm3+ikr¯nm2)],e(ikr¯nm)p¯(r¯m),
Φ(Sh)=f=1Fα(1FEmax(Sh,fΔλ))+β(PSLmin(Sh,fΔλ)),

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