Abstract

A scheme to generate a frequency-locked multicarrier based on a complementary frequency shifter (CFS) with double recirculating frequency-shifting loops has been proposed and analyzed theoretically. The transfer function and output properties of a CFS-based multicarrier generator (CMCG) have been derived. Based on our analysis, 100 carriers have been obtained with acceptable flatness under perfect and imperfect operation conditions. The results show that the proposed CMCG can achieve hundreds of frequency-locked carriers used in various scenarios.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, Z. Dong, J. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Chien, and N. Chi, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. He, S. Pan, R. Guo, Y. Zhao, and M. Pan, Opt. Lett. 37, 3834 (2012).

X. Li, J. Yu, Z. Dong, J. Zhang, Y. Shao, and N. Chi, Opt. Express 20, 21833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, N. Chi, Y. Shao, L. Tao, J. Zhu, and Y. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

J. Li, X. Li, X. Zhang, F. Tian, and L. Xi, Opt. Express 18, 17597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2007 (2)

T. Healy, F. C. Garcia-Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, Opt. Express 15, 2981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akbulut, M.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avino, S.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhooplapur, S.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. D.

Chandrasekhar, S.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

Chen, S.

Chi, N.

Chien, H.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davila-Rodriguez, J.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.

Ellis, A. D.

Ferdous, F.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Gunning, F. C.

Goh, T.

Guo, R.

Hamidi, E.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

Healy, T.

Hoghooghi, N.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

Leaird, D. E.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, X.

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

Liu, X.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

Long, C. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Mino, S.

Mori, A.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozdur, I.

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, M.

Pan, S.

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

Saida, T.

Salza, M.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

Shieh, W.

Supradeepa, V. R.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Tang, Y.

Tao, L.

Tian, F.

Wang, Y.

Weiner, A. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 35, 3234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xi, L.

Xiao, X.

Yamamoto, T.

Yamazaki, H.

Yang, Q.

Yu, J.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

Zhu, J.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Delfyett, I. Ozdur, N. Hoghooghi, M. Akbulut, J. Davila-Rodriguez, and S. Bhooplapur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (1)

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 58, 3269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Nat. Photonics (3)

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, R. Wu, F. Ferdous, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 6, 186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 826 (2010).

Science (1)

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, Science 330, 1081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of CMCG. CW, continuous wave; OC, optical coupler; PC, polarization controller; OA, optical amplifier; OBF, optical bandpass filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power reduction induced by crosstalk versus VppI and N.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transfer function of CFS and (b) 101-carrier output when N=50 under the perfect condition.

Equations (6)

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TCFS=HOCHModulatorHOC=[H11H12H21H22],H11=H22=12{cos[π2fI(t)Vπ]jcos[π2fQ(t)Vπ]},H12=H21=j2{cos[π2fI(t)Vπ]+jcos[π2fQ(t)Vπ]},
[Eo1Eo2]=TCFSEin=Ecw2[{sin[δmcos(ωmt)]jsin[δmsin(ωmt)]}j{sin[δmcos(ωmt)]+jsin[δmsin(ωmt)]}],
TCMCG=[TlTu]=12[glJ1(δm)[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕRTl)jguJ1(δm)[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕRTu)][[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕRTl)j[exp(jωmt)+bexp(j3ωmt)]exp(jϕRTu)],
EN(t)=Ecw(t)+Ecw(t)n=1Nexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRTu)+Ecw(t)n=1Nexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRTl)+Ecw(t)n=1N4nbexp(j3nωmt)exp(jnϕRTu)+Ecw(t)n=1N4nbexp(j3nωmt)exp(jnϕRTl),
Est(t)=Ecw(t)+Ecw(t)n=1Nexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRTu)desired signals in loopu+Ecw(t)n=1Nexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRTl)desired signals in loopl+Ecw(t)n=1NCnuexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRTu)crosstalk components in loopu+Ecw(t)n=1NCnlexp(jnωmt)exp(jnϕRTl)crosstalk components in loopl,
Cnu,l={nbexp(j4ϕRTu,l),n<(N3)(N3)bexp(j4ϕRTu,l),n(N3).

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