Abstract

We report the soft-aperture Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser, generating 550 mW of 69 fs nearly transform-limited pulses at 2.39 μm wavelength. The pulse energy reached 3.8 nJ at 145 MHz repetition rate, limited by the onset of double-pulsing. This corresponds to the shortest-pulse and highest-energy direct femtosecond laser source in the mid-infrared. Dispersion compensation was achieved by a single chirped mirror and a thin sapphire plate, making the laser design simple, compact and very stable, and operating at ambient air and room temperature. The superb thermal and mechanical properties of Cr:ZnS, exceeding those of Cr:ZnSe and many established femtosecond laser crystals, should allow for further scaling of output power.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.
  2. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. 26, 395 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, M. S. Mirov, and V. P. Gapontsev, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 898 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.
  6. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.
  7. E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.
  8. M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.
  11. I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.
  12. K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. Moskalev, V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, Opt. Lett. 27, 909 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.
  17. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.
  18. I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. 26, 395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

1996 (1)

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badikov, V.

Cankaya, H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

Carrig, T. J.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

Chernykh, A.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeLoach, L. D.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Di Lieto, A.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V.

I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

Fedorov, V. V.

Gapontsev, V. P.

Graham, K.

Kalashnikov, V.

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. P.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, A.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martyshkin, D. V.

Mirov, M.

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

Mirov, M. S.

Mirov, S.

I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

Mirov, S. B.

Moskalev, I.

I. Moskalev, V. Fedorov, and S. Mirov, Opt. Express 17, 2048 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. Moskalev, V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, Opt. Lett. 27, 909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

Moskalev, I. S.

Moulton, P.

E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.

Page, R. H.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Panyutin, V.

Payne, S. A.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

Schaffers, K. I.

Schunemann, P.

Sennaroglu, A.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slobodchikov, E.

E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.

Sorokin, E.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.

I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

Sorokina, I.

K. Vodopyanov, E. Sorokin, P. Schunemann, and I. Sorokina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2275 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

Sorokina, I. T.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. 26, 395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. Schaffers, Opt. Lett. 27, 1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.

I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.

I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

Tolstik, N.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Express 20, 28947 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, V. Kalashnikov, and I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1580 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.

Tonelli, M.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K.

Wilke, G. D.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, Appl. Phys. B 106, 887 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. Di Lieto, and M. Tonelli, Appl. Phys. B 74, 607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, and A. Apolonski, Appl. Phys. B 83, 503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. P. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885(1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

I. T. Sorokina, Opt. Mater. 26, 395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. L. Kalashnikov and E. Sorokin, Phys. Rev. A 81, 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, T. J. Carrig, and K. Schaffers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. TuA4.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, and I. T. Sorokina, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications Conference (OSA, 2011), p. NThC1.

E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, M. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, and S. Mirov, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. AMC2.

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, and T. Carrig, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), p. CMQ2.

E. Sorokin and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrashort-pulsed Kerr-lens modelocked Cr:ZnSe laser,” presented at CLEO/Europe 2009, Munich, Germany, June 15–19, 2009, p. CF1.3.

I. T. Sorokina, in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 225–260.

E. Slobodchikov and P. Moulton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper PDPA10.

I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007) paper WA7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the femtosecond Cr:ZnS KLM laser. OC, output coupler; HR, high-reflector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Autocorrelation trace of KLM Cr:ZnS laser pulses at highest output power. The inset shows beam profile at 50cm after the OC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output spectrum of a femtosecond Cr:ZnS laser (black), calculated round-trip GDD (dark red), and intracavity losses due to the mirrors (blue-green dashed) and atmospheric absorption (gray).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Autocorrelation trace (a) and optical spectrum (b) of a double-pulsed KLM Cr:ZnS laser with pulse separation of 2.4 ps.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser Characteristics of KLM-locked Cr:ZnS Laser with Different OC Mirrors

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