Abstract

We report the demonstration of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators augmented with diffraction gratings. We apply focused ion beam (FIB) methods to precisely engrave a surface grating directly into the perimeter of a crystalline disc. The grating provides a simple and highly directional free-space coupling mechanism with superior stability to evanescent coupling techniques. These integrated gratings can also provide control of the resonance spectrum, significantly reducing the mode density. Our FIB fabrication process does not introduce significant loss; Q3×107 has been demonstrated. The wavelength dependence of the diffraction angle was found to be in excellent agreement with grating theory. The versatility of spectral control and far-field grating coupling will have significant impact in WGM resonator applications in lasers, sensors, and optoelectronics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (2)

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Sasagawa, Z. Yonezawa, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, Electron. Lett. 39, 1817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (2)

Ahn, B.

Aveline, D. C.

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

Baumgartel, L.

Birks, T. A.

Cheung, G.

Feinberg, J.

V. Ilchenko, D. Starodubov, M. Gorodetsky, L. Maleki, and J. Feinberg, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, 1999), p. 67.

Gorodetsky, M.

V. Ilchenko, D. Starodubov, M. Gorodetsky, L. Maleki, and J. Feinberg, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, 1999), p. 67.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grudinin, I. S.

Hagness, S. C.

Ho, S. T.

Ilchenko, V.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Diffractive grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonators,” U.S. patent 7,929,589 (April19, 2011).

V. Ilchenko, D. Starodubov, M. Gorodetsky, L. Maleki, and J. Feinberg, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, 1999), p. 67.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jacques, F.

Knight, J. C.

Krauss, T. F.

Lacey, S.

Laere, F. V.

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Ilchenko, D. Starodubov, M. Gorodetsky, L. Maleki, and J. Feinberg, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, 1999), p. 67.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Diffractive grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonators,” U.S. patent 7,929,589 (April19, 2011).

Nunoshita, M.

K. Sasagawa, Z. Yonezawa, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, Electron. Lett. 39, 1817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, J.

K. Sasagawa, Z. Yonezawa, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, Electron. Lett. 39, 1817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rafizadeh, D.

Roelkens, G.

Sasagawa, K.

K. Sasagawa, Z. Yonezawa, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, Electron. Lett. 39, 1817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Diffractive grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonators,” U.S. patent 7,929,589 (April19, 2011).

Schrauwen, J.

Stair, K. A.

Starodubov, D.

V. Ilchenko, D. Starodubov, M. Gorodetsky, L. Maleki, and J. Feinberg, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, 1999), p. 67.

Taflove, A.

Taillaert, D.

Thourhout, D. V.

Tiberio, R. C.

Wang, H.

Yao, X. S.

Yonezawa, Z.

K. Sasagawa, Z. Yonezawa, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, Electron. Lett. 39, 1817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

Zhang, J. P.

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Sasagawa, Z. Yonezawa, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, Electron. Lett. 39, 1817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Diffractive grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonators,” U.S. patent 7,929,589 (April19, 2011).

V. Ilchenko, D. Starodubov, M. Gorodetsky, L. Maleki, and J. Feinberg, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, 1999), p. 67.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Free-space diffractive coupling setup with SEM image (a) showing an engraved CaF2 resonator with grating pitch, d=0.89μm. The integrated grating can serve as input (b) and/or output (c) couplers for WGMs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the two-port optical test setup (a) showing the angle-polished fiber input and the grating-coupled output. The detected signals (b) are plotted below, showing the absorption spectrum (i) as directly compared with the grating transmission spectrum (ii).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph (a) labeled above shows multiple output angles for a resonator coupled with a visible frequency comb. Plot (b) shows the coupling angle’s dependence on wavelength and grating pitch compared with theory (red dashed), while the inset shows the optimal coupling angle for 1560 nm with a Gaussian fit.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

noutdsinα=nres(λ)dsinβmλ,
α=sin1(nres(λ)λd).

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