Abstract

To the best of our knowledge, we present the first needle probe for combined optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescence imaging. The probe uses double-clad fiber (DCF) that guides the OCT signal and fluorescence excitation light in the core and collects and guides the returning fluorescence in the large-diameter multimode inner cladding. It is interfaced to a 1310 nm swept-source OCT system that has been modified to enable simultaneous 488 nm fluorescence excitation and >500nm emission detection by using a DCF coupler to extract the returning fluorescence signal in the inner cladding with high efficiency. We present imaging results from an excised sheep lung with fluorescein solution infused through the vasculature. We were able to identify alveoli, bronchioles, and blood vessels. The results demonstrate that the combined OCT plus fluorescence needle images provide improved tissue differentiation over OCT alone.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 36, 3894 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Mudhana, K. S. Park, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. J. Booth and T. Wilson, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth and T. Wilson, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Chudoba, C.

Curatolo, A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Daxhelet, X.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Godbout, N.

Guzman, F.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jaffer, F. A.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kim, J. W.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

Kirk, R. W.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 36, 3894 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

Lee, B. H.

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Li, X.

Lorenser, D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 36, 3894 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mavadia, J.

McCarthy, J. R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 36, 3894 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morneau, D.

Morse, T.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mudhana, G.

G. Mudhana, K. S. Park, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Na, J.

Namati, E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. S.

G. Mudhana, K. S. Park, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Quirk, B. C.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 36, 3894 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rivard, M.

Robbins, P. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. Y.

G. Mudhana, K. S. Park, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, Opt. Lett. 33, 2347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 36, 3894 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, C. M.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shubochkin, R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strupler, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Tumlinson, A.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verpillat, F.

Wang, L.

Wilson, T.

M. J. Booth and T. Wilson, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wood, B. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.

Yang, X.

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

G. Mudhana, K. S. Park, S. Y. Ryu, and B. H. Lee, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. J. Booth and T. Wilson, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, and F. A. Jaffer, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the needle probe. Inset: microscope image of the lensed DCF tip.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured output beam profiles at (a) 1310 nm and (b) 488 nm. The horizontal axis was rescaled to represent the output beam in water (n=1.32 and 1.34 at 1310 and 488 nm, respectively). Measurement of the axial response (c) and the detection sensitivity (d) in fluorescence imaging mode. The curves in (d) are slightly offset for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic of the dual-modality imaging system. VOA, variable optical attenuator; SMF, single-mode fiber; PMT, photomultiplier tube; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; and DCFC, DCF coupler. (b) Transmission (ports 2–1) and coupling (ports 2–3) of the DCFC in the multimode inner cladding in the fluorescence wavelength band. The black dashed line shows the emission spectrum of fluorescein (a.u.). (c) Transmission (ports 1–2) and coupling (ports 1–4) of the DCFC in the single-mode core in the OCT wavelength band. (d) Dual-modality image of a phantom incorporating tubing filled with fluorescein solution. Top: 2D section of the 3D OCT image (dynamic range 30 dB, scale bars are 1 mm). Bottom: 2D fluorescence map.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) 2D section of a 3D OCT image of a sheep lung. B, bronchiole and V, blood vessel. (b) Corresponding projected fluorescence signal in the same 2D plane. (c) Combined OCT and fluorescence images. Scale bar is 200 μm.

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