Abstract

We use numerical simulations to show that a suitably dimensioned periodic arrangement of vertical metallic metal–dielectric–metal nanocavities supports a hybrid plasmonic mode whose spatial electric field distribution is suitable for use in infrared photodetectors based on an unpatterned semiconductor thin-film absorbing layer. The partially localized nature of the hybrid mode offers reduced sensitivity to the angle of incoming light and smaller pixel sizes compared with surface plasmonic modes coupled by diffraction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, A. Dechelette, E. Bustarret, T. Lopez-Rios, T. Fournier, and B. Pannetier, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2191 (1999).
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  13. P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 066408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. D. Rossi, E. Costard, N. Guerineau, and S. Rommeluere, Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

1992

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

Andersson, J. Y.

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barbara, A.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 066408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bustarret, E.

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Costard, E.

A. D. Rossi, E. Costard, N. Guerineau, and S. Rommeluere, Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dechelette, A.

Desieres, Y.

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, T.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

Gaylord, T. K.

Guerineau, N.

A. D. Rossi, E. Costard, N. Guerineau, and S. Rommeluere, Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jouy, P.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Perchec, J.

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 066408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Rios, T.

López-Ríos, T.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 066408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lundqvist, L.

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Painter, O.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985), Vol. 1.

Pannetier, B.

Pardo, F.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelouard, J.-L.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quémerais, P.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 066408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rommeluere, S.

A. D. Rossi, E. Costard, N. Guerineau, and S. Rommeluere, Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, J.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A. D.

A. D. Rossi, E. Costard, N. Guerineau, and S. Rommeluere, Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Dehesa, J.

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shenoi, R. V.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teissier, R.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, Y.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vandervelde, T. E.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasanelli, A.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Le Perchec, Y. Desieres, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

A. D. Rossi, E. Costard, N. Guerineau, and S. Rommeluere, Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nat. Mater.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 066408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985), Vol. 1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Configuration of simulated object, (b) calculated reflection coefficient R(ω,k) plotted for (i) P/h/w=1000/300/100nm (λsurfλcav), showing the decoupled surface and cavity modes and (ii) P/h/w=1000/100/100nm (λsurfλcav), showing the hybrid mode, and (c) |E|2(x,z) for θ=0 over one grating period with dotted lines showing the metal surface: (i) surface mode (h=300nm), (ii) cavity mode (h=300nm), and (iii) hybrid mode (h=100nm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Quantum efficiency QE(λ,t) from a 100 nm absorbing layer for θ=0: (a) for P/h/w=1000/300/100nm, showing the surface and cavity modes at λ=3000nm and 5780 nm, respectively and (b) for P/h/w=1000/100/100nm, showing the hybrid mode at λ=3300nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular dependence of QE(λ,θ) for θ=0°, 2°, and 4° in the substrate: (a) for the surface mode and (b) for the hybrid mode. (c) FDTD calculations of QEmax(lpixel) for the hybrid mode (blue circles) and the surface mode (red squares). Solid curves show an estimation of QEmax(lpixel) based on a periodic simulation. (d) Hybrid mode QE(ω,k); the finite pixel k-distribution is superimposed (dashed white curve) for lpixel=10μm.

Equations (1)

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QEmax(lpixel)QEBGQEmaxQEBG=lpixellpixel+lmode,

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