Abstract

Both temperature and strain characterization of seed and regenerated gratings with and without post annealing is reported. The high temperature regeneration has significant impact on thermal characterization and mechanical strength of gratings while the post annealing has little effect. The observed difference is evidence of viscoelastic changes in glass structure.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).
  5. M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).
  8. J. Canning, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), OSA’s Advanced Photonics Congress (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BTu3E.3.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. O. V. Mazurin, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, 1983), Vol. 1.
  13. G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Cousen and W. E. S. Turner, J. Soc. Glass Technol. 12, 169 (1928).
  19. I. Avramov, T. Vassilev, and I. Penkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 472 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. Avramov, T. Vassilev, and I. Penkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Raine, R. Feced, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, Appl. Opt. 38, 1086 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

A. Cousen and W. E. S. Turner, J. Soc. Glass Technol. 12, 169 (1928).

Araujo, F. M.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aslund, M.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

Åslund, M. L.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avramov, I.

I. Avramov, T. Vassilev, and I. Penkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. R.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, V.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

Bartelt, H.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, P.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

Brückner, S.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Canagasabey, A.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

J. Canning, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), OSA’s Advanced Photonics Congress (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BTu3E.3.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Cavaleiro, P. M.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

Chen, R.

Chen, T.

Chojetzki, C.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cook, K.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

Cousen, A.

A. Cousen and W. E. S. Turner, J. Soc. Glass Technol. 12, 169 (1928).

de Oliveira, R. A.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Endo, M.

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feced, R.

Ferreira, L. A.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodchild, D.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

Himeno, K.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

Iwasaki, T.

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Janzen, F. C.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Jewart, C.

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

Kim, Y.-J.

Krug, P. A.

Lee, B. H.

Lindner, E.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Mazurin, O. V.

O. V. Mazurin, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, 1983), Vol. 1.

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mezzadri, F.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Morey, W. W.

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okude, S.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

Paek, U.-C.

Peng, G.-D.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, I.

I. Avramov, T. Vassilev, and I. Penkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raine, K. W.

Rothhardt, M.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rourke, H. N.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

Santos, J. L.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shima, K.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

Thorncraft, D. A.

Turner, W. E. S.

A. Cousen and W. E. S. Turner, J. Soc. Glass Technol. 12, 169 (1928).

Vassilev, T.

I. Avramov, T. Vassilev, and I. Penkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

Yamauchi, R.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

Yoffe, G. W.

Zhang, B.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1635 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. (1)

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

I. Avramov, T. Vassilev, and I. Penkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Glass Technol. (1)

A. Cousen and W. E. S. Turner, J. Soc. Glass Technol. 12, 169 (1928).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, Proc. SPIE 1516, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Biswas, M. Aslund, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech, 2010).

O. V. Mazurin, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, 1983), Vol. 1.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

J. Canning, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), OSA’s Advanced Photonics Congress (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BTu3E.3.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (IEEE, 1997), pp. 347–348.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Initial reflection (dash) and transmission (solid) spectra of a type I seed grating with Tr=50dB, and final spectra of regenerated grating with/without post annealing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Regeneration process with/without post annealing: seed gratings are heated from t=0. Temperature profile is also shown (red curve and blue dashed curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Δn versus T for each grating type.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ΔλB versus ΔL/L for three types of gratings. Inset: breaking point for three types of gratings and pristine fiber.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. T Response of λB and ξ for Each Grating

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔλB=λB(α+ξ)ΔT,
Δn=ξneffΔT,
ΔλB/λB=(1pe)ε,
pe=(n2/2)[p12ν(p11+p12)],

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