Abstract

We report an innovative approach for beam shaping of edge-emitting semiconductor diode lasers using a single double-axial hyperboloidal micro-lens fabricated with femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The two hyperboloids of different axial lengths focus the light from fast and slow axes to an identical focal spot. The divergence angles were shaped from 60° and 9° to 6.9 and 32.3 mrad, respectively, and the single-end fiber coupling efficiency is measured higher than 80%. The device is simple in fabrication, robust in structure, and easy for operation, by which multiple reflections and absorptions at interfaces are reduced, and assembly errors are minimized.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, S. Shoji, H. Hong, S. Kawata, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 566 (2009).
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2008 (2)

2004 (1)

F. M. Dickey and D. L. Shealy, Proc. SPIE 5525, 138 (2004).

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F. M. Dickey, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1008 (1992).

1991 (1)

Arbabi, A.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, T.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, M.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beier, W.

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Brinkmann, M.

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Camp, M.

Chen, Q. D.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

Chiba, K.

Clarkson, W. A.

Dickey, F. M.

F. M. Dickey and D. L. Shealy, Proc. SPIE 5525, 138 (2004).

F. M. Dickey, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, K.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, P.

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Edwards, C.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, B.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H. H.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiala, P.

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, Proc. SPIE 4095, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gheen, A. Z.

Z.-J. Wang, A. Z. Gheen, and Y. Wang, “Optical coupling system for a high—power diode—pumped solid state laser,” U.S. patent6,377,410 B1 (April23, 2002).

Goddard, L. L.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goltsos, W. C.

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1008 (1992).

Grego, J.

Hanna, D. C.

Hanson, R. K.

He, X.-N.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.

Jeffers, J. D.

Jeffries, J. B.

Jiang, L.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, J.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kaneko, R.

Kawakami, T.

Kawata, S.

Kitamura, N.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kobayashi, T.

Koshioka, M.

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1008 (1992).

Lin, X.-F.

Loosen, P.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luttmer, J.

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Ma, L.

Mahjouri-Samani, M.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Masubara, H.

Matsuo, S.

Mattison, D. W.

Matuso, S.

McCann, P. J.

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Mock, A.

Murphy, E.

E. Murphy, Nat. Photonics 4, 287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

Niu, L. G.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L.-G.

Pawlowski, E.

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Popescu, G.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richter, I.

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, Proc. SPIE 4095, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roller, C.

Saito, Y.

Sanders, S. T.

Sasaki, K.

Shealy, D. L.

F. M. Dickey and D. L. Shealy, Proc. SPIE 5525, 138 (2004).

Shoji, S.

Skeren, M.

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, Proc. SPIE 4095, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Sun, H. B.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

Takada, K.

Treusch, H. G.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-Q.

Wang, Y.

Z.-J. Wang, A. Z. Gheen, and Y. Wang, “Optical coupling system for a high—power diode—pumped solid state laser,” U.S. patent6,377,410 B1 (April23, 2002).

Wang, Z.-J.

Z.-J. Wang, A. Z. Gheen, and Y. Wang, “Optical coupling system for a high—power diode—pumped solid state laser,” U.S. patent6,377,410 B1 (April23, 2002).

Watanabe, M.

Wölfing, B.

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Wu, D.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, S. Shoji, H. Hong, S. Kawata, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q.-D. Chen, X.-F. Lin, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, W.-Q. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Z.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, W.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yamaguchi, S.

Ye, J.-Y.

Zhou, Y.-S.

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 1008 (1992).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. Jiao, H. Xiao, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

W. Xiong, Y.-S. Zhou, X.-N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Murphy, Nat. Photonics 4, 287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

F. M. Dickey, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

F. M. Dickey and D. L. Shealy, Proc. SPIE 5525, 138 (2004).

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H. G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, Proc. SPIE 4095, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Pawlowski, M. Brinkmann, W. Beier, J. Luttmer, B. Wölfing, and P. Ebeling, “Refractive–diffractive hybrid lens, in particular for beam shaping of high power diode lasers,” U.S. patent7,345,828, B2 (March18, 2008).

Z.-J. Wang, A. Z. Gheen, and Y. Wang, “Optical coupling system for a high—power diode—pumped solid state laser,” U.S. patent6,377,410 B1 (April23, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Double-axial hyperboloidal micro-lens for beam shaping. (a) Schematic of EESDL and the single beam-shaping micro-lens. (b) Output beam spot from an 808 nm diode laser (scalebar 1 cm). (c) Schematic of divergence angles and beam waist in the fast axis and slow axis, respectively. (d) Schematic double-axial hyperboloidal micro-lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface morphology and profile of double-axial hyperboloidal micro-lens. (a) and (b) SEM images of a lens, taken from top and side directions, respectively. (c) and (d) Surface profiles along the long and short axes taken by LSCM. Note the difference of the scale in the lateral axes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical properties of a double-axial hyperboloidal micro-lens. (a)–(c) Optical photographs of light spots at different locations when the detector was drawn far from the emitting surface, (a) 200 μm, (b) 260 μm, and (c) 320 μm, respectively. (d)–(f) Ray tracing calculation of the focal spot shape by assuming an ideal plane wave incidence, indicating the capability of the shaping lens for correcting the divergences along the two individual directions. (g) Light output spots without the shaping lens, taken 5 cm away from the light emitting surface. (h) and (i), with the shaping lens, the beam was focused into near-round shape at the two focal spots. The photos were taken 15  cm and 25  cm away from the emitting surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Beam shaping performance for a customized micro-lens. (a) The predicted spot sizes from the EESDL (spot) and divergence angles of the shaped beam (angle) versus the distance from the emitting surface. Letters S and L denote the slow and fast axis, respectively. (b) Fiber coupling efficiency with (upper branch) and without (the lower branch) the shaping lens employed. The inset is the coupling optical configuration. The letters P1P4 are the laser power at different positions.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ0=2λπω0,
ω(z)=ω02+z2λ2π2ω02.
θ02w1(z1)w2(z2)z1z2=2w1w2Δz,

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