Abstract

Solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a permanent helical twist exhibits dips in its transmission spectrum at certain wavelengths. These are associated with the formation of orbital angular momentum states in the cladding. Here we investigate the tuning of these states with mechanical torque and axial tension. The dip wavelengths are found to scale linearly with both axial strain and mechanical twist rate. Analysis shows that the tension-induced shift in resonance wavelength is determined both by the photoelastic effect and by the change in twist rate, while the torsion-induced wavelength shift depends only on the change in twist rate. Twisted PCF can act as an effective optically monitored torque-tension transducer, twist sensor, or strain gauge.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. Argyros, J. Pla, F. Ladouceur, and L. Poladian, Opt. Express 17, 15983 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 282, 3456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

P. St.J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol 24, 4729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Lett. 29, 1464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fuochi, J. Hayes, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, J. Baggett, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, Opt. Express 12, 1972 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 373 (1994).

1991 (1)

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2084 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. D. Birch, Electron. Lett. 23, 50 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Ashton, B.

Åslund, M.

Baggett, J.

Barnett, S. M.

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.

Belardi, W.

Bertholds, A.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Birch, R. D.

R. D. Birch, Electron. Lett. 23, 50 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chamorovskii, Y. K.

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovsky, Y. K.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Churikov, V. M.

V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 35, 342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, L. J.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cubillas, A. M.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Digweed, J.

Digweed, K.

Etzold, B. J. M.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Euser, T. G.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fuochi, M.

Furusawa, K.

Galvanauskas, A.

Genack, A. Z.

V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 35, 342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gubin, V. P.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 373 (1994).

Hayes, J.

Haywood, J.

Isaev, V. A.

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, O. V.

Jáuregui, C.

Jones, A. C.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. S.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 35, 342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

Laming, R. I.

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2084 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lau, A.

Lee, H. W.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. R.

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 282, 3456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lefrancois, S.

Li, L.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 373 (1994).

Liu, C.-H.

López-Higuera, J. M.

Marciante, J. R.

G. T. Moore and J. R. Marciante, “Cladding-pumped fiber with helical rare-earth-doped core for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,650,664 (November18, 2003).

Michie, A.

Monro, T.

Moore, G. T.

G. T. Moore and J. R. Marciante, “Cladding-pumped fiber with helical rare-earth-doped core for fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,650,664 (November18, 2003).

Morshnev, S. K.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. T.

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neugroschl, D.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. C.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 282, 3456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford, 1985).

Oh, K.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 282, 3456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

Padgett, M. J.

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.-C.

Payne, D. N.

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2084 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pla, J.

Poladian, L.

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J. R.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 373 (1994).

Richardson, D.

Russell, P. St.J.

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. St.J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol 24, 4729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryabko, M. V.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, P. J.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sazonov, A. I.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scandurra, D.

Shin, W.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 282, 3456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. S.

Starostin, N. I.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, M.

Townsend, C. D.

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Unterkofler, S.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Usov, A. I.

V. P. Gubin, V. A. Isaev, S. K. Morshnev, A. I. Sazonov, N. I. Starostin, Y. K. Chamorovskii, and A. I. Usov, Quantum Electron. 36, 287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A. K.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorob’ev, I. L.

Y. K. Chamorovsky, N. I. Starostin, S. K. Morshnev, V. P. Gubin, M. V. Ryabko, A. I. Sazonov, and I. L. Vorob’ev, Quantum Electron. 39, 1074 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wasserscheid, P.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, W. A. Clarkson, J. Nilsson, R. B. Williams, J. Sahu, and A. K. Vogel, Electron. Lett. 40, 1325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Wong, G. K. L.

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St.J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xi, X. M.

X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and P. St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, and P. St.J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. A.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 282, 3456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. St.J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured transmission spectrum of a 5 cm long PCF with a static twist rate of 14.4 rad · mm 1 . Insets: scanning electron micrograph of the PCF structure (left) and calculated axial Poynting vector distribution of the right-circularly polarized OAM cladding resonance at 803.3 nm (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transmission spectra of the PCF in Fig. 1 for different values of mechanical twists (in steps of 0.0345 rad · mm 1 ). The original spectrum is shown in gray.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured shift in resonance wavelength as a function of mechanical twist rate α M (colored dots). The solid line was plotted using Eq. (7) with | n SM ρ 2 / l | = 8.9 μm 2 and | l | = 6 . The dashed line shows the results of finite element modeling.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured shift in resonance wavelength as a function of net change in twist rate Δ α when the PCF was (a) subjected to mechanical twist at zero strain followed (b) by axial strain, keeping the twist angle between the fiber ends constant. The colored circles are experimental measurements and the solid lines are based on Eq. (7) with | n SM ρ 2 / l | = 7.9 μm 2 and | l | = 7 . The blue dashed lines represent the net mechanical twist rate during this procedure.

Equations (10)

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λ R = 2 π n SM ρ 2 α / | l | ,
Δ λ R = λ R 0 ( Δ n SM n SM 0 + Δ α α 0 + 2 Δ ρ ρ 0 ) ,
Δ α = α M α 0 ε .
Δ ( 1 / n T 2 ) = [ ν ( p 11 + p 12 ) + p 12 ] ε ,
Δ ρ = ρ 0 ν ε .
Δ n SM = n SM 0 3 2 [ ν ( p 11 + p 12 ) p 12 ] ε .
Δ λ R λ R 0 = ( α M α 0 ε ) 2 ν ε + ε n SM 0 2 2 [ ν ( p 11 + p 12 ) p 12 ] .
exp [ L ( γ cl + γ cl 2 4 κ 2 ) ] ,
ε = 2 ϕ req α 0 L ( n SM 0 2 [ p 12 ν ( p 11 + p 12 ) ] + 4 ν ) ,
α M = α 0 ε req ( 1 + 2 ν + n SM 0 2 2 [ p 12 ν ( p 11 + p 12 ) ] )

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