Abstract

By applying a suitable quadratic temperature distribution at a temperature within the viscoelastic softening region for silica, a regenerated chirped grating with bandwidth of 9.8 nm is produced from a uniform grating using post strain-tuning under load. Simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Wang, L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, and K. Cook, Appl. Opt. 52, 2080 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, in Fifth European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (SPIE, 2013), paper 87941X.
  4. F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).
  5. G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 094010 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Chen, A. Yan, M. Li, T. Chen, Q. Wang, J. Canning, K. Cook, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 2490 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Wang, L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 38, 247 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, Appl. Opt. 26, 3474 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugden, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hill and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 30, 1172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Aslund, M.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Åslund, M. L.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barcelos, S.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

K. Sugden, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, P.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, S.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Canagasabey, A.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, T. Wang, K. Cook, and H. Y. Tam, Acta Mater. 61, 6071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 38, 247 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, and K. Cook, Appl. Opt. 52, 2080 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, A. Yan, M. Li, T. Chen, Q. Wang, J. Canning, K. Cook, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 2490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Chen, K. P.

Chen, R.

Chen, T.

Chojetzki, C.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cook, K.

T. Wang, L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 38, 247 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, and K. Cook, Appl. Opt. 52, 2080 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, T. Wang, K. Cook, and H. Y. Tam, Acta Mater. 61, 6071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, A. Yan, M. Li, T. Chen, Q. Wang, J. Canning, K. Cook, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 2490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, and K. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Copner, N.

K. Sugden, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cotillard, R.

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 094010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, in Fifth European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (SPIE, 2013), paper 87941X.

de Oliveira, R. A.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

P. Hill and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 30, 1172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fenton, J.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 094010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, in Fifth European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (SPIE, 2013), paper 87941X.

Hill, P.

P. Hill and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 30, 1172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Janzen, F. C.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Jewart, C.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 094010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, in Fifth European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (SPIE, 2013), paper 87941X.

Laming, R. I.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Lindner, E.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

McKee, P.

R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mezzadri, F.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

Molony, A.

K. Sugden, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G.-D.

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, N.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M.

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakuda, K.

Scrivener, P. L.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

K. Sugden, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, T. Wang, K. Cook, and H. Y. Tam, Acta Mater. 61, 6071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tucknott, J. A.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wang, T.

Williams, D.

R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Yan, A.

Zervas, M. N.

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Acta Mater. (1)

L.-Y. Shao, J. Canning, T. Wang, K. Cook, and H. Y. Tam, Acta Mater. 61, 6071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Kashyap, P. McKee, R. Campbell, and D. Williams, Electron. Lett. 30, 996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugden, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hill and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 30, 1172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. I. Laming, N. Robinson, P. L. Scrivener, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, L. Reekie, and J. A. Tucknott, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

M. L. Åslund, J. Canning, A. Canagasabey, R. A. de Oliveira, Y. Liu, K. Cook, and G.-D. Peng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 3288 (2012).
[CrossRef]

JEOS RP (1)

J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, P. Biswas, J. Fenton, and M. Aslund, JEOS RP 4, 09052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 094010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Lindner, J. Canning, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 284, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors (1)

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Laffont, R. Cotillard, and P. Ferdinand, in Fifth European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (SPIE, 2013), paper 87941X.

F. Mezzadri, F. C. Janzen, C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Cook, in MOMAG2012—15th Brazilian Symposium for Microwaves and Optoelectronics (SBMO) and the 10th Brazilian Congress for Electromagnetics (CBMag) (SBMO, 2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Initial reflection (dash) and transmission (solid) spectra of a type I seed grating with R=99.999%, and final spectra of regenerated grating. The shorter wavelength dip in transmission is due to a nonreflective cladding loss of the seed grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temperature profile of the heater, with quadratic fits at T=850°C and 1120°C. The marked regions where the grating is located during regeneration and viscoelastic tuning are shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Regeneration process: seed gratings are heated from t=0. The evolution of λ of this process is also shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The spectra evolution of the grating during tuning (solid). The temperature recipe is also shown (circle dash). The background noise at longer wavelengths deteriorates, and is attributed to lower power density of the ASE light source in this region; (b) central wavelength, λC, and bandwidth, ΔλBW, versus time during the tuning process (solid rectangle and solid circle).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation of the strain-tuned grating spectrum at t=127min.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum of the strain-tuned grating at room temperature, compared with that heated for 132 min.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔλBλB=(1pe)ε=(1pe)ΔΛΛ=(1pe)ΔLL,
r(T)=Aexp(B/T),
r(z)=r(T(z),F),
ΔλB(r(z),t)λB=(1pe)ΔΛ(r(z),t)Λ=(1pe)ΔL(r(z),t)L,
Λ(z,t)=Λ0+r(z)·t/2neff,

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