Abstract

We have experimentally observed optical multistabilities (OMs) simultaneously on both the signal and generated Stokes fields in an optical ring cavity with a coherently prepared multilevel atomic medium. The two observed OMs, which are governed by different physical processes, are coupled via the multilevel atomic medium and exhibit similar threshold behaviors. By modulating the cavity input (signal) field with positive or negative pulses, dual-channel all-optical multistate switching has been realized and synchronously controlled, which can be useful for increasing communication and computation capacities.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).
  2. A. Brown, A. Joshi, and M. Xiao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1301 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3173 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, Nat. Photonics 5, 633 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. W. Brown and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 30, 699 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Wang, Y. Xue, J. H. Wu, S. S. Liu, Z. H. Kang, and J. Y. Gao, Opt. Express 17, 23332 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-F. Chen, Z.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Liu, and I. A. Yu, Opt. Lett. 30, 3207 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Sheng, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Express 19, 17059 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051802(R) (2002).
  17. J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223906 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Harshwardhan and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1812 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. S. El-Bawab, Optical Switching (Springer, 2006).
  20. G. P. Agrawal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 505 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Wu and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 80, 063415 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Sheng, H. Wu, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 37, 1655 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. A. Lugiato, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1984), Vol. XXI, pp. 69–216.
  24. A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Yang, J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013824 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, H. Wu, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 37, 1655 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Sheng, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Express 19, 17059 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, Nat. Photonics 5, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Wu and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 80, 063415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, Y. Xue, J. H. Wu, S. S. Liu, Z. H. Kang, and J. Y. Gao, Opt. Express 17, 23332 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brown, A. Joshi, and M. Xiao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051802(R) (2002).

2001

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Harshwardhan and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. P. Agrawal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 505 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

H. Harshwardhan and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 505 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Albert, M.

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, Nat. Photonics 5, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bajcsy, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A.

A. Brown, A. Joshi, and M. Xiao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. W.

Chen, Y.-F.

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dantan, A.

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, Nat. Photonics 5, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, A. M.

A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drewsen, M.

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, Nat. Photonics 5, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El-Bawab, T. S.

T. S. El-Bawab, Optical Switching (Springer, 2006).

Gaeta, A. L.

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. Y.

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

Goorskey, D.

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051802(R) (2002).

Greenberg, J. A.

A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hafezi, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harshwardhan, H.

H. Harshwardhan and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hofferberth, S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

A. Brown, A. Joshi, and M. Xiao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Z. H.

Khadka, U.

X. Yang, J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, H. Wu, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 37, 1655 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Express 19, 17059 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. S.

Liu, Y.-C.

Londero, P.

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

L. A. Lugiato, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1984), Vol. XXI, pp. 69–216.

Lukin, M. D.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manuszak, D.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merriam, A. J.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyronel, T.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rickey, E. G.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saha, K.

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. J.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, J.

J. Sheng, H. Wu, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 37, 1655 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Express 19, 17059 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shverdin, M.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Z.-H.

Venkataraman, V.

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051802(R) (2002).

Wu, H.

Wu, J. H.

Xiao, M.

X. Yang, J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, H. Wu, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 37, 1655 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, X. Yang, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Opt. Express 19, 17059 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 80, 063415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Brown and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 30, 699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Brown, A. Joshi, and M. Xiao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051802(R) (2002).

Xue, Y.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Yin, G. Y.

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, I. A.

Zhu, Y.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Brown, A. Joshi, and M. Xiao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 505 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, Nat. Photonics 5, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

X. Yang, J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 85, 013824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 64, 041801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balić, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051802(R) (2002).

H. Wu and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. A 80, 063415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Harshwardhan and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dawes, L. Illing, J. A. Greenberg, and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, U. Khadka, and M. Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. S. El-Bawab, Optical Switching (Springer, 2006).

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

L. A. Lugiato, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1984), Vol. XXI, pp. 69–216.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. PBS 1 and PBS 2, polarization beam splitters; M1–M3, cavity mirrors; APD 1 and APD 2, avalanche photodiode detectors; PZT, piezoelectric transducer. (b) The relevant four-level atomic system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimentally observed OB curves: two cavity outputs as a function of input signal intensity recorded by (a) APD 1 and (b) APD 2. The experimental parameters are Δθ=154.7MHz, Pc=19.3mW, Pp=14.1mW, Δs=181.1MHz, Δc=208.4MHz, Δp=1.2GHz, and T=103.2°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimentally observed OM curves with Δθ=181.7MHz: two cavity outputs recorded by (a) APD 1 and (b) APD 2. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

All-optical binary (left) and multistate (right) switches. (a), (d) The cavity input pulse sequence; (b)–(f) the synchronously controlled cavity outputs with (b), (c) two and (e), (f) three stable states.

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