Abstract

Heterogeneous III–V/Si integration with a compact optical vertical interconnect access is fabricated and the light coupling efficiency between the III–V/Si waveguide and the silicon nanophotonic waveguide is characterized. The III–V semiconductor material is directly bonded to the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and etched to form the III–V/Si waveguide for a higher light confinement in the active region. The compact optical vertical interconnect access is formed through tapering a III–V and an SOI layer in the same direction. The measured III–V/Si waveguide has a light coupling efficiency above 90% to the silicon photonic layer with the tapering structure. This heterogeneous and light coupling structure can provide an efficient platform for photonic systems on chip, including passive and active devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

Atwater, H. A.

Augendre, E.

Baets, R.

Ben Bakir, B.

Bogaerts, W.

Bordel, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Brouckaert, J.

Brouckaert, J. J.

Chang, H.

Cohen, O.

Descos, A.

Di Cioccio, L.

Diest, K. A.

Duan, G. H.

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, M. Lamponi, G. H. Duan, J. M. Fedeli, and D. V. Thourhout, “Towards a heterogeneous III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” in 14th Annual Symposium of IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, 2010.

Dumon, P.

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J. M.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 19, 10317 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, M. Lamponi, G. H. Duan, J. M. Fedeli, and D. V. Thourhout, “Towards a heterogeneous III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” in 14th Annual Symposium of IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, 2010.

Fulbert, L.

Ghaffari, A.

Grosse, P.

Ho, S. T.

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Wang, Y. Q. Wei, Y. Y. Huang, Y. M. Tu, D. K. T. Ng, C. W. Lee, Y. N. Zheng, B. Y. Liu, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 19, 2006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Huang, Y.

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

Jones, R.

Keyvaninia, S.

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, M. Lamponi, G. H. Duan, J. M. Fedeli, and D. V. Thourhout, “Towards a heterogeneous III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” in 14th Annual Symposium of IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, 2010.

Lagahe, C.

Lai, Y.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Lamponi, M.

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, M. Lamponi, G. H. Duan, J. M. Fedeli, and D. V. Thourhout, “Towards a heterogeneous III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” in 14th Annual Symposium of IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, 2010.

Lee, C. W.

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Wang, Y. Q. Wei, Y. Y. Huang, Y. M. Tu, D. K. T. Ng, C. W. Lee, Y. N. Zheng, B. Y. Liu, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 19, 2006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Lim, K. P.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Liu, B. Y.

Liu, C.

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ng, D. K. T.

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Wang, Y. Q. Wei, Y. Y. Huang, Y. M. Tu, D. K. T. Ng, C. W. Lee, Y. N. Zheng, B. Y. Liu, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 19, 2006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Nötzel, R.

Olivier, N.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pu, J.

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Rabiei, P.

Raday, O.

Regreny, P.

Roelkens, G.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Scherer, A.

Seassal, C.

Shearn, M. J.

Smit, M.

Sun, X.

Sysak, M. N.

Taillaert, D.

Tang, K.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Thourhout, D. V.

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, M. Lamponi, G. H. Duan, J. M. Fedeli, and D. V. Thourhout, “Towards a heterogeneous III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” in 14th Annual Symposium of IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, 2010.

Tu, Y.

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tu, Y. M.

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. D.

Wei, Y.

Q. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Pu, P. Rabiei, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Express 20, 16745 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y. Q.

Yariv, A.

Zadok, A.

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Zheng, D. K. T. Ng, Y. Wei, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, J. Pu, C. Liu, and S. T. Ho, J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (10)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, K. P. Lim, J. Pu, K. Tang, Y. Lai, C. W. Lee, and S. T. Ho, “Effects of SiO2 hard masks on Si nanophotonic waveguide loss for photonic device integration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2287276 (to be published).

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, M. Lamponi, G. H. Duan, J. M. Fedeli, and D. V. Thourhout, “Towards a heterogeneous III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” in 14th Annual Symposium of IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, 2010.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram showing (a) the design of the compact optical vertical interconnect access structure, which includes (b) the silicon nanowaveguide cross-sectional design and (c) the cross-sectional diagram of the double-tapering structure, which enables efficient light transfer from the III–V semiconductor layer to the silicon layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication flow to realize the demonstrated heterogeneous III–V/Si integration with a compact optical vertical interconnect access device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Cross-sectional SEM view of the fabricated Si nanowaveguide with a width of around 600 nm. (b) Optical image of bonded III–V on SOI after III–V substrate removal. (c) Cross-sectional SEM view of etched InP bonded to the SOI device, with a 1 μm SiO2 passivation layer on top of the fabricated device. (d) Top-view SEM image of the fabricated device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical measurement to verify light coupling and guiding through the III–V/Si waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)–(d) Schematics of four waveguide structures measured to extract coupling efficiency. Panels (e) and (f) show SEM images corresponding to the tapering sections in (a) and (b), respectively.

Equations (2)

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α=1Llog(1+Imin/Imax1Imin/Imax1R1R2),
exp(α¯dLtot)=exp(αsilsi)ηexp(αIIIVlIIIV)ηexp(αsilsi)

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