Abstract

We have performed an in vitro and in vivo study, based on laser speckle contrast analysis, to detect fluid pulsation in the presence of artifacts caused by the relative motion between the sample and the illumination source. We observe that the pulsation signal is clearly detectable for a range of motion amplitudes and oscillation frequencies; however, for higher amplitudes and oscillation frequencies of motion, the signal, due to pulsation, becomes increasingly difficult to detect.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Allen, Physiol. Meas. 28, R1 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Cheng and T. Q. Duong, Opt. Lett. 32, 2188 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Vegfors and L. Lindberg, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 135 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gilman, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56, 615 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, LAIT 81, 787 (2001).
  11. J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).
  15. K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).

H. Cheng and T. Q. Duong, Opt. Lett. 32, 2188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Allen, Physiol. Meas. 28, R1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, LAIT 81, 787 (2001).

1995

J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Vegfors and L. Lindberg, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Gilman, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, R. M.

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, J.

J. Allen, Physiol. Meas. 28, R1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Briard, V.

M. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, LAIT 81, 787 (2001).

Briers, D.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Briers, J.

J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

Draijer, M.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, D. D.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Duong, T. Q.

Gilman, A.

A. Gilman, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, E.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hondebrink, E.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. P.

P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.-G.

H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Komalla, N. R.

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, E. H.

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kyriacou, P. A.

P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Langford, R. M.

P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, M.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.

H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).

Lee, H.

H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).

Lee, J.

H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).

Li, P.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, L.

M. Vegfors and L. Lindberg, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madhav, K. V.

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michalski, M.

M. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, LAIT 81, 787 (2001).

Michel, F.

M. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, LAIT 81, 787 (2001).

Mischi, M.

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nemati, M.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Powell, S.

P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ram, M. R.

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K. A.

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stijnen, M.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stromberg, T.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, O. B.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

van der Lee, A. M.

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Tuijl, S.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Veen, J.

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vegfors, M.

M. Vegfors and L. Lindberg, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S.

J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wijshoff, R. W. C. G. R.

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeitouny, M. G.

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biochem.

A. Gilman, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

M. R. Ram, K. V. Madhav, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 1445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Madhav, M. R. Ram, E. H. Krishna, N. R. Komalla, and K. A. Reddy, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62, 1094 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Control Autom.

H. Lee, J. Lee, W.-G. Jung, and G. Lee, Int. J. Control Autom. 5, 701 (2007).

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Qiu, P. Li, W. Luo, J. Wang, H. Zhang, and Q. Luo, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. W. C. G. R. Wijshoff, M. Mischi, J. Veen, A. M. van der Lee, and R. M. Aarts, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 117007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 66018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

LAIT

M. Michalski, V. Briard, and F. Michel, LAIT 81, 787 (2001).

Lasers Med. Sci.

M. Draijer, E. Hondebrink, T. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, Lasers Med. Sci. 24, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

M. Vegfors and L. Lindberg, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Physiol. Meas.

J. Allen, Physiol. Meas. 28, R1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kyriacou, S. Powell, R. M. Langford, and D. P. Jones, Physiol. Meas. 23, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Nemati, L. Wei, M. G. Zeitouny, M. Stijnen, S. van Tuijl, N. Bhattacharya, and H. P. Urbach, Proc. SPIE 8413, 84131D (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup (a) in vitro and (b) in vivo. The motion artifacts are generated by the motion of the laser beam, which creates a different penetration depth, illumination spot, and distance to the detector. The speckle contrast has been calculated over the whole illuminated area.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Speckle contrast variation over time on the left and spectral analysis of the contrast curve on the right. Milk pulsation in the flow cell with frequencies of 1 Hz (upper plot) and 1.25 Hz (lower plot) for two displacements of the illuminating laser: 0.5 mm (upper continuous line) and 2 mm (lower dashed line) at the frequencies of (a) 0.7 Hz, (b) 1.4 Hz, and (c) 2.8 Hz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Speckle contrast variation over time on the left and spectral analysis of the contrast curve on the right. Milk pulsation in the flow cell with frequencies of 1 Hz (upper plot) and 1.25 Hz (lower plot) for random displacement of the illuminating laser at the amplitudes: 0.5 mm (upper continuous line) and 2 mm (lower dashed line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Speckle contrast variation over time on the left and spectral analysis of the contrast curve on the right. Measurement with human finger for the illuminating laser displacements of: 0.5 mm (upper continuous line) and 0.8 mm (lower dashed line) at the frequencies (a) 1 Hz, (b) 1.4 Hz, and (c) 2.8 Hz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Speckle contrast variation over time on the left and spectral analysis of the contrast curve on the right. Measurement with human finger for two random displacements of the illuminating laser at the amplitudes: 0.2 mm (upper continuous line) and 0.8 mm (lower dashed line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ratio of Pulsation Frequency Amplitude to Double Frequency of Laser Motion Signal in the Spectral Decomposition

Equations (1)

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K=σI.

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