Abstract

We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×104μm3 and a high quality factor of 4.9×104 (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×107 (1.36×105). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

X. Xiong, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, Y.-X. Ye, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, T. L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. G. Bouillard, W. Dickson, D. P. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Nano Lett. 12, 1561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

C.-L. Zou, F.-W. Sun, C.-H. Dong, X.-F. Ren, J.-M. Cui, X.-D. Chen, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 36, 3630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, Nano Lett. 9, 4078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chang, C.-Y. A. Ni, and S.-L. Chuang, Opt. Express 16, 10580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kirchain and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. A. Matula, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 1147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Bartal, G.

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouillard, J.-S. G.

J.-S. G. Bouillard, W. Dickson, D. P. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Nano Lett. 12, 1561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-W.

Chen, D. R.

Q. J. Lu, C.-L. Zou, D. R. Chen, P. Zhou, and G. Z. Wu, “Extreme light confinement and low loss in hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Commun. (submitted).

Chen, X.-D.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S.-L.

Cui, J.-M.

Cui, S.

K. J. Russell, T. L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, W.

J.-S. G. Bouillard, W. Dickson, D. P. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Nano Lett. 12, 1561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dobrzynski, L.

L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.-H.

Ee, H.-S.

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, Nano Lett. 9, 4078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-C.

X. Xiong, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, Y.-X. Ye, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Zou, F.-W. Sun, C.-H. Dong, X.-F. Ren, J.-M. Cui, X.-D. Chen, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 36, 3630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.-F.

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

K. J. Russell, T. L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khajavikhan, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

R. Kirchain and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirchain, R.

R. Kirchain and L. C. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, Nano Lett. 9, 4078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.-P.

X. Xiong, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, Y.-X. Ye, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. L.

K. J. Russell, T. L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. J.

Q. J. Lu, C.-L. Zou, D. R. Chen, P. Zhou, and G. Z. Wu, “Extreme light confinement and low loss in hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Commun. (submitted).

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matula, R. A.

R. A. Matula, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 1147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ni, C.-Y. A.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Notzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, D. P.

J.-S. G. Bouillard, W. Dickson, D. P. O’Connor, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Nano Lett. 12, 1561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, H.-G.

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, Nano Lett. 9, 4078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parkins, A. S.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.-F.

X. Xiong, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, Y.-X. Ye, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Zou, F.-W. Sun, C.-H. Dong, X.-F. Ren, J.-M. Cui, X.-D. Chen, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 36, 3630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russell, K. J.

K. J. Russell, T. L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A.

V. Ilchenko, A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M.-K.

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, Nano Lett. 9, 4078 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Nature 482, 204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.-W.

X. Xiong, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, Y.-X. Ye, F.-W. Sun, and G.-C. Guo, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Zou, F.-W. Sun, C.-H. Dong, X.-F. Ren, J.-M. Cui, X.-D. Chen, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 36, 3630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Otten, F. W. M.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of the DBT nanocavity. The origin is defined at the center of the cavity. (b) Top view (xy plane) of the electric field distribution of the fundamental mode (the resonance wavelength is 1589.3 nm, h=400nm, t=200nm, α=100°, and g=10nm). The bottom and side panels denote the normalized electric field along the x (y=z=0) and y (x=z=0) directions, respectively. Inset: electric field distribution around the tip of a single TSNW. The red arrows denote the direction of the electric field. (c) Side view (xz plane) of the electric field distribution of the fundamental mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Frequency, (b) Q factor, and (c) mode volume of the mode as a function of the height h of the TSNM. Inset in (c): side view (xz plane) of the electric field distribution of the n=2 mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Purcell factor Fp of the fundamental mode as a function of wedge tip angle α in different gap width conditions, here h=400nm, t=200nm. (b) Fp of the fundamental mode as a function of thickness of the TSNW t in different gap width conditions, here h=400nm, α=100°. (c)–(f) Top views (xy plane) of the electric field distributions of the fundamental mode for (c) [h,t,g,α]=[400nm,200nm,10nm,20°], (d) [400 nm, 200 nm, 2 nm, 100°], (e) [400 nm, 100 nm, 10 nm, 100°], and (f) [400 nm, 100 nm, 50 nm, 100°].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Q factor and Purcell factor (Fp) of fundamental mode as a function of operating temperature. Here, h=400nm, t=200nm, g=2nm, and α=100°.

Equations (3)

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2hneff/λn,
V=allε(r)|E(r)|2d3r/max[ε(r)|E(r)|2].
Fp=3Q(λ/n)3/(4π2V).

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