Abstract

We report a new optical arrangement that creates high-efficiency, high-quality Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) holograms using polarization sensitive transmission liquid crystal gradient index (TLCGRIN) diffractive lenses. In contrast, current universal practice in the field employs a reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) to separate sample and reference beams. Polarization sensitive TLCGRIN lenses enable a straight optical path, have >90% transmission efficiency, are not pixilated, and are free of many limitations of reflective SLM devices. For each sample point, two spherical beams created by a glass lens in combination with a polarization sensitive TLCGRIN lens interfere and create a hologram and resultant super resolution image.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012

2011

2009

N. Hashimoto and M. Kurihara, Proc. SPIE 7232, 72320N (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 2, 190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge, 1999), Chap. 10.3.2, p. 566.

Bouchal, P.

P. Bouchal and Z. Bouchal, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 8, 13011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Bouchal, J. Kapitan, R. Chmelik, and Z. Bouchal, Opt. Express 19, 15603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bouchal, Z.

P. Bouchal and Z. Bouchal, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 8, 13011 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Bouchal, J. Kapitan, R. Chmelik, and Z. Bouchal, Opt. Express 19, 15603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brooker, G.

Chmelik, R.

Fu, L.

Hashimoto, N.

N. Hashimoto and M. Kurihara, Proc. SPIE 7232, 72320N (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapitan, J.

Katz, B.

Kelner, R.

Kim, M. K.

Kurihara, M.

N. Hashimoto and M. Kurihara, Proc. SPIE 7232, 72320N (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, X.

Lv, X.

Rosen, J.

Siegel, N.

Wang, V.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge, 1999), Chap. 10.3.2, p. 566.

Yuan, J.

Zeng, S.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, Z.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the FINCH fluorescence microscope using TLCGRIN lens. On the left side of the figure is depicted the ray diagram for a FINCH hologram of a point. BS stands for the polarizing beam splitter, and f0f4 are the focal lengths of the objective lens, first and second relay lenses, tube lens, and TLCGRIN lens 1, respectively. TLCGRIN lens 2 is inactive and placed orthogonal to active TLCGRIN lens 1. The sample is located at distance zs from the objective lens, and the holography camera CAM1 is located at distance zh from the tube lens, as described in the text. The widefield camera, CAM2 is located at distance f1 from the first relay lens and views the rejected polarization component (s polarization axis) from the BS1 cube. Distances are corrected to account for the optical path through the glass of the BS cubes. The hologram plane is midway between the focus of the glass tube lens and its reduced focal length due to combination with the polarized component of the TLCGRIN lens. Axis orientation values (in degrees) are given with respect to the p polarization of the first beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescent USAF resolution pattern imaged by widefield (top row) and FINCH fluorescence microscopy (bottom row) with a 20×, 0.75 NA objective, and GFP filter set (525 nm emission). A plastic backing rendered the patterns fluorescent. Left panels are the whole field of view (285 μm on a side), and center panels show enlarged group 8 and 9 features with the smallest features in group 9 approaching the resolution limit. The far-right panels show the line profile intensity through the smallest group 9 features. The visibility with FINCH is increased about twofold when compared to widefield imaging.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Widefield and (b)–(d) reconstructed FINCH images of pollen grains captured using a 20× (0.75 NA) objective, showing the ability of FINCH to refocus at depths that were out of focus under widefield conditions. Each full field image is 285 μm square. The widefield image was resampled to match the pixel count of the FINCH images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effect of bandwidth on visibility of group 9 features in a USAF test slide with and without a compensating TLCGRIN lens placed orthogonal to the active TLCGRIN lens. Top row: with compensation at 1, 10, and 40 nm bandwidth; visibilities were 0.73, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively. Bottom row: without compensation at 1, 10, and 40 nm bandwidth: visibilities were 0.56, 0.26, and 0, respectively.

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