Abstract

In this Letter, we report on the successful fabrication of low loss, high refractive index contrast waveguides via ion migration upon femtosecond laser writing in phosphate glass. Waveguides were produced in two different phosphate glass compositions with high and low La2O3 content. In the La-rich glass, a large refractive index increase in the guiding region was observed due to the incoming migration of La accompanied by the out-diffusion of K. The much smaller refractive index change in the La-less glass is caused by rearrangements of the glass structure. These results confirm the feasibility of adapting the glass composition for enabling the laser writing of high refractive index contrast structures via spatially selective modification of the glass composition.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).
  2. L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, and G. Valle, in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials (Springer, 2012), pp. 265–292.
  6. G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. http://www.schott.com/advanced_optics/english/download/schott-iog-1-phosphate-laser-glass-may-2013-eng.pdf .
  8. http://www.kigre.com/files/mm2data.pdf .
  9. J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, in Inorganic Optical Materials II, A. J. Marker and E. G. Arthurs, eds. (SPIE, 2000), pp. 88–94.
  11. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 14, 13158 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 34, 136 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).
  19. F. Luo, J. Song, X. Hu, H. Sun, G. Lin, H. Pan, Y. Cheng, L. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, Opt. Lett. 36, 2125 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

2011

F. Luo, J. Song, X. Hu, H. Sun, G. Lin, H. Pan, Y. Cheng, L. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, Opt. Lett. 36, 2125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 34, 136 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 14, 13158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1994

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 14, 13158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berdejo, V.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brow, R. K.

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, in Inorganic Optical Materials II, A. J. Marker and E. G. Arthurs, eds. (SPIE, 2000), pp. 88–94.

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, and G. Valle, in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials (Springer, 2012), pp. 265–292.

Cheng, Y.

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

Cianci, E.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

de la Cruz, A. R.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

Fernandez, T. T.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrer, A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, L. B.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foglietti, V.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Hirao, K.

Honma, T.

K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hoyo, J.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Huang, H.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

Jaque, D.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

Komatsu, T.

K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Liu, Y.

Luo, F.

Maksimov, I.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mardilovich, P.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

Marshall, G. D.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 14, 13158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

Metwalli, E.

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, in Inorganic Optical Materials II, A. J. Marker and E. G. Arthurs, eds. (SPIE, 2000), pp. 88–94.

Midorikawa, K.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

Morinaga, K.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nageno, Y.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noji, A.

K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ortega-Feliu, I.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, and G. Valle, in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials (Springer, 2012), pp. 265–292.

Pan, H.

Qian, B.

Qiu, J.

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, and G. Valle, in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials (Springer, 2012), pp. 265–292.

Rebolledo, M. A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reichman, W. B.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

Ruiz, A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shihoyama, K.

Shimizu, M.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Shinozaki, K.

K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sidebottom, D. L.

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, in Inorganic Optical Materials II, A. J. Marker and E. G. Arthurs, eds. (SPIE, 2000), pp. 88–94.

Siegel, J.

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Sorbello, G.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

Taccheo, S.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takebe, H.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Troy, N. W.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

Valle, G.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, and G. Valle, in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials (Springer, 2012), pp. 265–292.

Valles, J. A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Witcher, J. J.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 14, 13158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yang, L.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Zhao, Q.

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, G. Sorbello, E. Cianci, and V. Foglietti, Electron. Lett. 42, 632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277 (2006).

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.

P. Mardilovich, L. B. Fletcher, N. W. Troy, L. Yang, H. Huang, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 4, 87 (2013).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

H. Takebe, Y. Nageno, and K. Morinaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, D. Jaque, J. Siegel, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluorine Chem.

K. Shinozaki, A. Noji, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, J. Fluorine Chem. 145, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, in Inorganic Optical Materials II, A. J. Marker and E. G. Arthurs, eds. (SPIE, 2000), pp. 88–94.

http://www.schott.com/advanced_optics/english/download/schott-iog-1-phosphate-laser-glass-may-2013-eng.pdf .

http://www.kigre.com/files/mm2data.pdf .

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, and G. Valle, in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials (Springer, 2012), pp. 265–292.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

DIC images of waveguide cross-sections produced in La-rich and La-less phosphate glasses. First row waveguide parameters are 640, 670, and 730 nJ; second row is 1090 nJ. The arrow indicates the writing laser beam propagation direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mode profiles and insertion losses of the waveguides fabricated in the La-rich glass.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(f) Erbium ion green emission (540–550 nm) μPL mappings of waveguides produced in La-less and La-rich phosphate glass. Each image has a dimension of 35μm×40μm. DIC images of both waveguides are shown in the first column of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) and (c) PO2 vibration bands in La-less and La-rich glasses, respectively. (b) 2D mapping of the PO2 symmetric vibration Raman peak position (cm1) in the waveguide inscribed in La-rich glass. The image at the base of the plot corresponds to DIC-optical transmission micrograph of the structure showing the (bright) light guiding region. The horizontal scales are in micrometers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Secondary electron image of a waveguide fabricated in the La-rich glass. Yellow arrow marks the corresponding scan distance in 5(c) line scan. (b) EDX mapping showing the distribution of La (red) and K (cyan) in the irradiated region. (c) and (d) Line scans of combined ion migrations in La-rich and La-less glass, respectively.

Metrics