Abstract

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technique that directly images optical absorption in tissue at high spatial resolution. To date, the majority of OR-PAM systems are based on single-focused optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, limiting the wide-field imaging speed. While 1D multifocal OR-PAM (1D-MFOR-PAM) has been developed, the potential of microlens and transducer arrays has not been fully realized. Here we present the development of 2D multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic-computed microscopy (2D-MFOR-PACM), using a 2D microlens array and a full-ring ultrasonic transducer array. The 10mm×10mm microlens array generates 1800 optical foci within the focal plane of the 512-element transducer array, and raster scanning the microlens array yields optical-resolution photoacoustic images. The system has improved the in-plane resolution of a full-ring transducer array from 100 to 29 μm and achieved an imaging time of 36 s over a 10mm×10mm field of view. In comparison, the 1D-MFOR-PAM would take more than 4 min to image over the same field of view. The imaging capability of the system was demonstrated on phantoms and animals both ex vivo and in vivo.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  2. L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1236 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 758 (2013).

G. Li, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 030501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

2011 (3)

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

J. K. Gamelin, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, Med. Phys. 38, 1503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

D. O. Lapotko and E. Y. Lukianova, Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 13 (2005).

2004 (1)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A.

J. K. Gamelin, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, Med. Phys. 38, 1503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anastasio, M.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Apps, R.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Arbeit, J.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Boulenouar, S.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chatni, M.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chatni, M. R.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Colucci, F.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Gamelin, J.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, J. K.

J. K. Gamelin, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, Med. Phys. 38, 1503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, L.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Guo, P.

Guo, Z.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Hemberger, M.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Huang, F.

Lapotko, D. O.

D. O. Lapotko and E. Y. Lukianova, Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 13 (2005).

Li, C.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

Li, G.

G. Li, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 030501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lukianova, E. Y.

D. O. Lapotko and E. Y. Lukianova, Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 13 (2005).

Madeja, Z.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Maslov, K.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K. I.

G. Li, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 030501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maurudis, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moffett, A.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Roper, S. J.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Sheikh, H. R.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simoncelli, E. P.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, R.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Song, L.

Wang, K.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Wang, L. V.

G. Li, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 030501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 758 (2013).

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

L. Song, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Xu, M.

M. Xu, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 47–60.

Yadi, H.

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Yao, J.

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 758 (2013).

Zhang, Y.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

Zhu, Q.

J. K. Gamelin, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, Med. Phys. 38, 1503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

G. Li, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 030501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 010509 (2010).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 758 (2013).

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. O. Lapotko and E. Y. Lukianova, Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 13 (2005).

Med. Phys. (1)

J. K. Gamelin, A. Aguirre, and Q. Zhu, Med. Phys. 38, 1503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

Z. Madeja, H. Yadi, R. Apps, S. Boulenouar, S. J. Roper, L. Gardner, A. Moffett, F. Colucci, and M. Hemberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 4012 (2011).

Other (2)

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standard Institute, 2000).

M. Xu, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 47–60.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (3314 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3979 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3030 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the 2D-MFOR-PACM system. (a) 3D view of the system. (b) Cross-sectional view, especially highlighting the acoustic focus.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

In-plane resolution of the 2D-MFOR-PACM system. (a) Line-spread function used to measure the in-plane resolution of the 2D-MFOR-PACM system. (b) Comparison of spatial resolutions of PACT and 2D-MFOR-PACM systems.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of a skeleton leaf phantom. (a) Conventional PACT image. (b) 2D-MFOR-PACM image. (Media 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ex vivo images of an intact uterus from a pregnant mouse on gestation day 14.5. The lower portions of these images show one of two placentas present in this mouse. (a) Conventional PACT image. (b) 2D-MFOR-PACM image. Media 2 (4.0 MB) highlights the regions within the green dashed line.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In vivo images of cortical vasculature in a mouse brain. (a) Conventional PACT image. (b) 2D-MFOR-PACM image. (Media 3, 3.0 MB).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

2D-MFOR-PACM images reconstructed from (a) 64 elements per step, (b) 128 elements per step, and (c) 256 elements per step scans.

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