Abstract

We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi2Te3 saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

2012 (4)

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Jun, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, B. Y. Kim, and D. I. Yeom, Opt. Lett. 37, 1862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, Opt. Express 20, 27888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 4, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, Opt. Lett. 35, 3709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. J. McFerran, Appl. Opt. 48, 2752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, Opt. Express 17, 18364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, Nat. Phys. 5, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature 452, 970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, Opt. Express 16, 12618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, Nature 424, 831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arend, M.

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, F.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Cai, Z. P.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  um Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” arXiv:1307.4979 (2013).

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature 452, 970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, H. H.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  um Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” arXiv:1307.4979 (2013).

Choi, S. Y.

Collings, B. C.

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, Nat. Phys. 5, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, Nat. Phys. 5, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorza, S. P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Grelu, P.

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, M. Z.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature 452, 970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hor, Y. S.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature 452, 970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, D.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature 452, 970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Huang, Y. Z.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  um Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” arXiv:1307.4979 (2013).

Ilday, F. Ö.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 4, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M.

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jun, C. S.

Kane, C. L.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, K.

Keller, U.

U. Keller, Nature 424, 831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komarov, A.

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, H.

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lecaplain, C.

Leng, L.

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, Z. B.

Lin, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  um Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” arXiv:1307.4979 (2013).

Liu, A. Q.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, Nat. Phys. 5, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

Luo, Z. C.

Luo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  um Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” arXiv:1307.4979 (2013).

Matsas, V.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McFerran, J. J.

Mikulla, B.

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Q. Y.

Okhotnikov, O.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 4, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Payne, D. N.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. W.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. L.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, Nat. Phys. 5, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature 452, 970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sears, S.

B. Mikulla, L. Leng, S. Sears, B. C. Collings, M. Arend, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Shen, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. B 65, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, Opt. Express 20, 27888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, Opt. Express 16, 12618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06  um Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” arXiv:1307.4979 (2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM and (b) TEM images of the Bi2Te3 nanosheets prepared by hydrothermal intercalation/exfoliation method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup for the fabrication of microfiber-based TISA; (b) evanescent field of microfiber observed by the visible light; (c) microscopy image of fabricated microfiber-based TISA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental setup for nonlinear absorption measurement of microfiber-based TISA; (b) measured transmission curve and the corresponding fitting curve.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the passive HML fiber laser with a microfiber-based TISA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mode-locked operation at the fundamental repetition rate. (a) Mode-locked spectrum; (b) mode-locked pulse-train; inset, autocorrelation trace.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

HML operation at the repetition rate of 2.04 GHz. (a) Mode-locked spectrum; (b) recorded pulse-train; inset, pulse train with 300 ns span; (c) corresponding autocorrelation trace.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Harmonic number and output power versus pump power.

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