Abstract

The purpose of the study is to measure chaos in dynamic anterior surface aberrations and examine how it varies between the eyes of an individual. Noninvasive tear breakup time and dynamic corneal surface aberrations were measured for two open-eye intervals of 15 s. The maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) was calculated to test the nature of the fluctuations of the dynamic anterior surface aberrations. The average MLE for total higher-order aberration (HOA) was found to be small (+0.0102±0.0072)μm/s. No significant difference in MLE was found between the eyes for HOA (t-test; p=0.131). Data analysis was carried out for individual Zernike coefficients, including vertical prism as it gives a direct measure of the thickness of the tear film over time. The results show that the amount of chaos was small for each Zernike coefficient and not significantly correlated between the eyes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Gruppetta, L. Koechlin, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, in SF2A-2005: Semaine de l’Astrophysique Francaise (2005), pp. 237–240.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1615 (2005).
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  9. K. M. Hampson and E. A. H. Mallen, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 863 (2012).
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  10. K. M. Hampson and E. A. H. Mallen, Opt. Lett. 38, 302 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe, Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science (Springer-Verlag, 1992).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 562 (2004).
  14. M. T. Rosenstein, J. J. Collins, and C. J. De Luca, Phys. D 65, 117 (1993).
  15. F. K. Holly, S. J. LauKaitis, and E. D. Esquivel, Curr. Eye Res. 3, 897 (1984).
  16. V. Jayakumar, N. Hutchings, V. Lakshminaryanan, and L. W. Jones, IOVS 2013, Vol. 54 of ARVO Annual Meeting Abstracts (2013), paper 2608.

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

V. Lakshminarayanan and A. Fleck, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

S. Gruppetta, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, Opt. Express 13, 7631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1615 (2005).

2004 (4)

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1752 (2004).

D. Iskander, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1939 (2004).

A. Dubra, C. Paterson, and C. Dainty, Opt. Express 12, 6278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 562 (2004).

1993 (1)

M. T. Rosenstein, J. J. Collins, and C. J. De Luca, Phys. D 65, 117 (1993).

1984 (1)

F. K. Holly, S. J. LauKaitis, and E. D. Esquivel, Curr. Eye Res. 3, 897 (1984).

Alió, J. L.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1615 (2005).

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1752 (2004).

Charman, W. N.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1615 (2005).

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1752 (2004).

Chin, S. S.

Collins, J. J.

M. T. Rosenstein, J. J. Collins, and C. J. De Luca, Phys. D 65, 117 (1993).

Collins, M. J.

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 562 (2004).

Dainty, C.

De Luca, C. J.

M. T. Rosenstein, J. J. Collins, and C. J. De Luca, Phys. D 65, 117 (1993).

Dubra, A.

Esquivel, E. D.

F. K. Holly, S. J. LauKaitis, and E. D. Esquivel, Curr. Eye Res. 3, 897 (1984).

Fleck, A.

V. Lakshminarayanan and A. Fleck, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gruppetta, S.

S. Gruppetta, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, Opt. Express 13, 7631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gruppetta, L. Koechlin, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, in SF2A-2005: Semaine de l’Astrophysique Francaise (2005), pp. 237–240.

Hampson, K. M.

Holly, F. K.

F. K. Holly, S. J. LauKaitis, and E. D. Esquivel, Curr. Eye Res. 3, 897 (1984).

Hutchings, N.

V. Jayakumar, N. Hutchings, V. Lakshminaryanan, and L. W. Jones, IOVS 2013, Vol. 54 of ARVO Annual Meeting Abstracts (2013), paper 2608.

Iskander, D.

D. Iskander, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1939 (2004).

Iskander, D. R.

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 562 (2004).

Jayakumar, V.

V. Jayakumar, N. Hutchings, V. Lakshminaryanan, and L. W. Jones, IOVS 2013, Vol. 54 of ARVO Annual Meeting Abstracts (2013), paper 2608.

Jones, L. W.

V. Jayakumar, N. Hutchings, V. Lakshminaryanan, and L. W. Jones, IOVS 2013, Vol. 54 of ARVO Annual Meeting Abstracts (2013), paper 2608.

Jürgens, H.

H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe, Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

Koechlin, L.

S. Gruppetta, L. Koechlin, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, in SF2A-2005: Semaine de l’Astrophysique Francaise (2005), pp. 237–240.

Lacombe, F.

S. Gruppetta, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, Opt. Express 13, 7631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gruppetta, L. Koechlin, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, in SF2A-2005: Semaine de l’Astrophysique Francaise (2005), pp. 237–240.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

V. Lakshminarayanan and A. Fleck, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminaryanan, V.

V. Jayakumar, N. Hutchings, V. Lakshminaryanan, and L. W. Jones, IOVS 2013, Vol. 54 of ARVO Annual Meeting Abstracts (2013), paper 2608.

LauKaitis, S. J.

F. K. Holly, S. J. LauKaitis, and E. D. Esquivel, Curr. Eye Res. 3, 897 (1984).

Li, K. Y.

Mallen, E. A. H.

Montés-Micó, R.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1615 (2005).

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1752 (2004).

Muñoz, G.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1752 (2004).

Paterson, C.

Peitgen, H.

H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe, Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

Puget, P.

S. Gruppetta, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, Opt. Express 13, 7631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gruppetta, L. Koechlin, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, in SF2A-2005: Semaine de l’Astrophysique Francaise (2005), pp. 237–240.

Rosenstein, M. T.

M. T. Rosenstein, J. J. Collins, and C. J. De Luca, Phys. D 65, 117 (1993).

Saupe, D.

H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe, Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

Yoon, G.

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 562 (2004).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

F. K. Holly, S. J. LauKaitis, and E. D. Esquivel, Curr. Eye Res. 3, 897 (1984).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. Iskander, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1939 (2004).

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1615 (2005).

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, and W. N. Charman, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 1752 (2004).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. Lakshminarayanan and A. Fleck, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 545 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. (1)

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 562 (2004).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. D (1)

M. T. Rosenstein, J. J. Collins, and C. J. De Luca, Phys. D 65, 117 (1993).

Other (3)

V. Jayakumar, N. Hutchings, V. Lakshminaryanan, and L. W. Jones, IOVS 2013, Vol. 54 of ARVO Annual Meeting Abstracts (2013), paper 2608.

H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe, Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

S. Gruppetta, L. Koechlin, F. Lacombe, and P. Puget, in SF2A-2005: Semaine de l’Astrophysique Francaise (2005), pp. 237–240.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of anterior surface HOA measures obtained for a 6 mm pupil diameter at a 24 Hz sampling frequency for a 15 s open-eye interval (top: open gray circles). The same data is also shown after detrending (bottom: filled black circles)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Box plots showing the MLE values obtained for the HOA RMS from each eye and open-eye interval of an individual participant and (b) box plots showing the MLE values obtained for the vertical prism (Z11) coefficients from each eye and each open-eye interval of an individual participant.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Correlation of MLEs obtained from the HOA RMS between the right and left eyes of all participants for the combined open-eye interval data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Average MLE Values of Coefficients up to the Fourth Order

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