Abstract

Dark soliton propagation is studied in the presence of higher-order effects, including third-order dispersion, self-steepening, linear/nonlinear gain/loss, and Raman scattering. It is found that for certain values of the parameters a stable evolution can exist for both the soliton and the relative continuous-wave background. Using a newly developed perturbation theory we show that the perturbing effects give rise to a shelf that accompanies the soliton in its propagation. Although, the stable solitons are not affected by the shelf it remains an integral part of the dynamics otherwise not considered so far in studies of higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger models.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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