Abstract

Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  36. Measurement of S3 is not necessary as there appears to be greater than 90% agreement between S02 and S12+S22 for pixels with a large number of counts (i.e., S02≈S12+S22). Therefore, polarization of the vector vortex mode is expected to be mostly linear.
  37. The purity of colors is quantified in the barchart below each image. The barchart is a measure of the response of the CCD to the relative red (R), blue (B), and green (G) colors present in the beam. All other visible colors are extrapolated from these RGB colors. Hence, the barcharts in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d) have the most counts in red and green, respectively, and show clear discrimination from other colors in the beam. Since yellow is largely a mixture of red and green counts in pixels, these two colors will have the most counts compared to other colors in the beam, which is consistent with the CCD sensor spectral response to different colors. The CCD data sheets can be found at http://ww2.ptgrey.com/USB2/chameleon .
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2013

2012

E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, C. de Lisio, and E. Santamato, Opt. Lett. 37, 127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. Lisio, and E. Santamato, Appl. Opt. 51, C1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Anderson, H. Bigman, L. E. E. de Araujo, and J. L. Chaloupka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1968 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Opt. Express 19, 4085 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasslet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokizane, K. Oka, and R. Morita, Opt. Express 17, 14517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M.-T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Sztul, V. Kartazayev, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 31, 2725 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 41, 270 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Zeylikovich, V. Kartazaev, and R. R. Alfano, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1453 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’Ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, Opt. Express 12, 5448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Egorov, T. A. Fadeyeva, and A. V. Volyar, J. Opt. A 6, S217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Swartzlander and J. Schmit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1970

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 41, 270 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Sztul, V. Kartazayev, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 31, 2725 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Zeylikovich, V. Kartazaev, and R. R. Alfano, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1453 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Anderson, M. E.

Barnett, S. M.

Bewersdorf, J.

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Bigman, H.

Booth, M. J.

Boyraz, O.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, E.

Brasslet, E.

E. Brasslet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burke, D.

Cardano, F.

Chaloupka, J. L.

Chigrinov, V.

Choi, M.-T.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

D’Ambrosio, V.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, L. E. E.

de Lisio, C.

Delfyett, P. J.

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, Y. A.

Y. A. Egorov, T. A. Fadeyeva, and A. V. Volyar, J. Opt. A 6, S217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, S.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fadeyeva, T. A.

Fauzi, A. A.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gee, S.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Gould, T. J.

Hasman, E.

Hell, S. W.

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 16, 9614 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hidayat, A.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hossain, Z.

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

Izadpanah, H.

Izdebskaya, Y. V.

Jahn, R.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

E. Brasslet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karimi, E.

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. Lisio, and E. Santamato, Appl. Opt. 51, C1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, C. de Lisio, and E. Santamato, Opt. Lett. 37, 127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Kartazaev, V.

Kartazayev, V.

Kastrup, L.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kleiner, V.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

Kromann, E. B.

Leach, J.

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leanhardt, A. E.

Lee, W.

Lisio, C.

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marrucci, L.

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. Lisio, and E. Santamato, Appl. Opt. 51, C1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, C. de Lisio, and E. Santamato, Opt. Lett. 37, 127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Opt. Express 19, 4085 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Masuda, H.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 41, 270 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milione, G.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Milivojevic, B.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

E. Brasslet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 41, 270 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morita, R.

Murauski, A.

Murazawa, N.

E. Brasslet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D. N.

Nguyen, T. A.

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Niv, A.

Noe, R.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D.

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Nolan, D. A.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 41, 270 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oka, K.

Ozharar, S.

Padgett, M. J.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pas’Ko, V.

Piccirillo, B.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pratavieira, S.

Y. S. Rumala, S. Pratavieira, G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, Z. Hossain, D. Nolan, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and R. R. Alfano, in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FTu1F.

Quinlan, F.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
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Other

Measurement of S3 is not necessary as there appears to be greater than 90% agreement between S02 and S12+S22 for pixels with a large number of counts (i.e., S02≈S12+S22). Therefore, polarization of the vector vortex mode is expected to be mostly linear.

The purity of colors is quantified in the barchart below each image. The barchart is a measure of the response of the CCD to the relative red (R), blue (B), and green (G) colors present in the beam. All other visible colors are extrapolated from these RGB colors. Hence, the barcharts in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d) have the most counts in red and green, respectively, and show clear discrimination from other colors in the beam. Since yellow is largely a mixture of red and green counts in pixels, these two colors will have the most counts compared to other colors in the beam, which is consistent with the CCD sensor spectral response to different colors. The CCD data sheets can be found at http://ww2.ptgrey.com/USB2/chameleon .

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for (a) mapping vector vortex polarization topology and (b) implementing the optical spectral filter/switch. TiS, titanium–sapphire laser; OI, optical isolator; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; DG, diffraction grating; Sl, slit; SMOF, single mode optical fiber; LP, linear polarizer; QP, q-plate; CCD, charge coupled device camera; OOSA, ocean optics spectrum analyzer; M, mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental intensity (upper) and polarization map (lower) of vector vortex: (a) 617±2nm (red), (b) 585±1nm (yellow), (c) 540±3nm (green), which were extracted from (d) the multicolored vortex. (e) Spectra of multicolored vortex-(d) showing wavelength (frequency) spectra from the PC fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental data demonstrating the optical spectral filter. (a) Example of multicolored optical mode generated by the q-plate and going into the SMO fiber. As the voltage through the q-plate is tuned from 2.50 to 2.00 V, the colors emerging from the SMO fiber change from orange to yellow to green [35] as shown in (b)–(d). Barchart of CCD counts represent the total counts for each RGB color on the CCD screen, where counts in each pixel were normalized to a value between 0 and 1, and actual CCD counts ranged from 0 to 255.

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