Abstract

We experimentally investigate the self-reflectivity of intense strongly focused femtosecond laser pulses used for single-shot femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI). We model the self-reflectivity using 2D finite-difference time-domain simulations of a single femtosecond laser pulse interacting with a submicrometer-sized time- and space-dependent plasma induced by the incident pulse itself and find excellent agreement with our experimental results. The simulation shows that the laser-induced plasma scatters the incident pulse into the guided modes of the device layer of the SOI.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 38, 187 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4918 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Heat Transfer 126, 723 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2011

H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Heat Transfer 126, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bok, J.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Cheng, Y.

Choi, T. Y.

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Heat Transfer 126, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Combescot, M.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R.

R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Heat Transfer 126, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, C.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, M.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Liu, X.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loesel, F.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Migus, A.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, K.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, Ph.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pronko, P. P.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, L.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Oosten, D.

H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

VanRompay, P. A.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinet, J. Y.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Zhang, D. van Oosten, D. M. Krol, and J. I. Dijkhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, K. Mori, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 216 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer

T. Y. Choi and C. P. Grigoropoulos, J. Heat Transfer 126, 723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

K. Sokolowski-Tinten and D. von der Linde, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2643 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, Ph. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Antonetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the 2D-FDTD simulation box. The FDTD grid is excited by a soft source that is located 200 nm above the silicon–air interface. Scattered E and H near-field values are recorded at the detector plane to extract the reflectivity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

2D-FDTD calculations and experimental measurements of the self-reflectivity on the SOI1 (red) and the SOI2 (blue) samples. Circles and squares indicate the data of the two independent experimental runs. Thick solid lines show the reflectivity calculated by 2D-FDTD simulations with the TM and TE modes combined. Thin solid lines and thin dashed lines show the reflectivity of the TE and TM modes, respectively. The dash-dotted lines show the self-reflectivity obtained by 1D-FDTD calculations. The vertical gray line indicates the ablation threshold.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated Ez field in the SOI1 sample 122 fs (a) before and (b) after the peak of the incident pulse arrives. Incident laser fluence is 0.5J/cm2. (c) Power spectrum of the wave vectors present in the device layer (the region between the two horizontal lines), obtained by a spatial Fourier transform of the simulated Ez in the device layer of (b) (red solid line). The solid vertical lines correspond to the wave vectors of the TE0 and the TE1 slab modes (effective indices neff=3.4 and neff=2.4, respectively). The dashed vertical lines correspond to the light-line in air. The green dashed line, obtained from a MEEP simulation of the same structure, is shown for comparison.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Adjusted Parametersa

Equations (3)

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N(r,t)t·[DN(r,t)]=α0I(r,t)ω+βI2(r,t)2ω+θI(r,t)N(r,t),
εex(r,t)=εSi+εDrude+εNL,εDrude(r,t)=ωp2ω2+iω/τd,ωp=Ne2m*meε0,εNL=34χ3|E0(r,t)|2,
R=ErefEinc=0rmax[FTMfref(r)+FTEfref(r)]2πrdr0rmax[FTMinc(r)+FTEinc(r)]2πrdr,

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