Abstract

We report the first observation of a nonlinear process in a chalcogenide microresonator. Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering leading to laser oscillation is observed in microspheres made of As2S3. The coupled pump power threshold is as low as 13 μW using a pump wavelength of 1550 nm. The quality factor of the chalcogenide microresonator is also the highest ever reported with Q>7×107.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 29, 1224 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 38, 127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Opt. Lett. 37, 4549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. B.

Agarwal, A.

Agha, I. H.

Ahmad, R.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Opt. Lett. 37, 4549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anzueto-Sánchez, G.

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, M.

Bian, S. N.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bo, L.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Broaddus, D. H.

Carlie, N.

Carmon, T.

Caron, N.

Ding, M.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

F. Luan, E. Magi, T. Gong, I. Kabakova, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 4761 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Amraoui, M.

Elliott, G. R.

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

Fortin, V.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Galstian, T.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, T.

Grillet, C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

Hamel, V.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayat, A.

Hewak, D.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Hu, J.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kabakova, I.

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 29, 1224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

La Mela, C.

Lee, T.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Luan, F.

Madsen, C. K.

Magi, E.

Magi, E. C.

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Messaddeq, Y.

Min, B.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peter, Y.-A.

Petit, L.

Richardson, K.

Rivero, C.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Rochette, M.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Opt. Lett. 37, 4549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Senthil Murugan, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Elliott, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. N. Zervas, and D. W. Hewak, Opt. Express 18, 26720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Elliott, D. W. Hewak, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Express 15, 17542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Snider, W. T.

Solmaz, M. E.

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 29, 1224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. C.

Turcotte, K.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Express 12, 4742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 29, 1224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 38, 127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, F.

Villeneuve, A.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wu, Q.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Zervas, M. N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, S. N. Bian, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. Senthil Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Wang, G. Senthil Murugan, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectrum of a resonance with a QL=7×107. Inset: micrograph of a typical microsphere produced with the laser melting process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for Raman laser emission measurements. TLS, tunable laser source; PC, polarization controler; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; Det, detector; Osc, oscilloscope.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Raman laser emission with an input pump power of 123 μW (black curve). Superimposed (red curve) is the bandwidth-limited spectrum of a narrow cw laser, indicating that the Raman laser emission spectrum is also bandwidth-limited by the OSA. (b) Maxima of Raman emission spectra as a function of the input pump power. The Raman lasing threshold power is 61.3 μW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scheme of the measurements. (a) Oscilloscope view of transmitted pump and Raman emission power PR. (b) Raman emission power against coupled pump power Pcoup gives the coupled pump threshold power Pcoupth and the internal conversion efficiency ηin of the Raman process. Pin and T are the input pump power and the transmission value, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temporal domain measurements of SRS emission for an input pump power of 49 μW with transmitted pump power in black, forward Raman emission in red, and backward Raman emission in blue. Raman lasing starts at a detuning of 2 pm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Raman emission power versus coupled pump power for an input pump power of 49 μW. Raman lasing starts at 12.9 μW of coupled power with an internal conversion efficiency of 10.7%.

Equations (1)

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ηin=ωRωPQLQc,

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