Abstract

Increased detection sensitivity was achieved by adjusting the incident angle on periodic gold nanostructures that induced a resonant coupling between surface and substrate surface plasmon modes. For 500 nm-period gold nanoslits, a small incident angle, 7°, resulted in 2.64 times narrower linewidth and a 1.8 times increase in the figure of merit as compared to normal incidence. Furthermore, the intensity sensitivity was increased 4.5 times due to the change in the resonant coupling and redshift of the surface plasmon mode.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2014

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6900306 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

S.-H. Wu, S.-Y. Hsieh, K.-L. Lee, R.-H. Weng, A. Chiou, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, ACS Nano 6, 2931 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, Chem. Rev. 111, 3828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 083108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, Y.-H. Tai, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 6, 483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Chang, J.-T. Wu, K.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Yang, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, Sensors 11, 1565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

2009

2008

A. Lahav, M. Auslender, and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 33, 2539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 3, 119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, Nature 452, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. K. Singh and A. C. Hillier, Anal. Chem. 78, 2009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

Aksu, S.

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Auslender, M.

Bartoli, F. J.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6900306 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bergstein, D. A.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cabodi, M.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cetin, A. E.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Chang, J.-T. Wu, K.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Yang, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.-W.

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, ACS Nano 6, 2931 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A.

S.-H. Wu, S.-Y. Hsieh, K.-L. Lee, R.-H. Weng, A. Chiou, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chung, T.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, Sensors 11, 1565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Connor, J. H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duyne, R. P. V.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6900306 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6900306 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gershoni, J. M.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J. H.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, Chem. Rev. 111, 3828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillier, A. C.

B. K. Singh and A. C. Hillier, Anal. Chem. 78, 2009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, Chem. Rev. 108, 462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, in Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors, J. R. Homola, ed. (Springer, 2006).

Hsieh, S.-Y.

S.-H. Wu, S.-Y. Hsieh, K.-L. Lee, R.-H. Weng, A. Chiou, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-B.

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, ACS Nano 6, 2931 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khanikaev, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lahav, A.

Lalanne, P.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, Nature 452, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, Sensors 11, 1565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-L.

S.-H. Wu, S.-Y. Hsieh, K.-L. Lee, R.-H. Weng, A. Chiou, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, ACS Nano 6, 2931 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 083108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, Y.-H. Tai, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 6, 483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Chang, J.-T. Wu, K.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Yang, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, S.-H. Wu, and P.-K. Wei, Opt. Express 17, 23104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 3, 119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

Lin, K.-H.

W.-Y. Chang, J.-T. Wu, K.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Yang, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, Nature 452, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, K. M.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, Chem. Rev. 111, 3828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mousavi, S. H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mrksich, M.

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

Needham, J. W.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

Otte, M. A.

M. A. Otte and B. Sepulveda, in Nanoplasmonic Sensors, A. Dmitriev, ed. (Springer, 2012).

Özkumur, E.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roh, S.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, Sensors 11, 1565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sepulveda, B.

M. A. Otte and B. Sepulveda, in Nanoplasmonic Sensors, A. Dmitriev, ed. (Springer, 2012).

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, P.

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 11784 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. K.

B. K. Singh and A. C. Hillier, Anal. Chem. 78, 2009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinton, D.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stuparu, A. D.

H. Gao, J. C. Yang, J. Y. Lin, A. D. Stuparu, M. H. Lee, M. Mrksich, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 10, 2549 (2010).

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tai, Y.-H.

K.-L. Lee, Y.-H. Tai, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 6, 483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. Y.

T. Y. Chang, M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, H. Y. Tsai, P. Shi, S. Aksu, M. F. Yanik, and H. Altug, Lab Chip 11, 3596 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

E. Özkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. S.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-S.

K.-L. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 3, 119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P.-K.

S.-H. Wu, S.-Y. Hsieh, K.-L. Lee, R.-H. Weng, A. Chiou, and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, ACS Nano 6, 2931 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee and P.-K. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 083108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, Y.-H. Tai, and P.-K. Wei, Plasmonics 6, 483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Chang, J.-T. Wu, K.-H. Lin, S.-Y. Yang, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, Microelectron. Eng. 88, 909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, S.-H. Wu, and P.-K. Wei, Opt. Express 17, 23104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM images of the silicon mold (upper) and gold nanoslits (lower). (b) Measurement setup for full angular transmission spectra.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SPR wave propagation on a metallic nanoslit array. (b) Measured transmission diagram of gold nanoslits with period 500 nm under the refractive index of 1.3435 at full angular incidence compared with theoretical calculation (dashed lines). (c)–(e) Transmission spectra of gold nanoslits at incident angle of (c) 0°, (d) 3°, and (e) 7°. (f) Resonance linewidth (FWHM) and peak intensity change as a function of incident angle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated field transmission under water environment at (a) normal and (b) oblique incidence. (c) Off-resonance condition at oblique incidence under the refractive index of 1.45.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of gold nanoslit arrays under various environmental refractive index liquids at incident angle of (a) 0° and (b) 7°. (c), (d) Estimated (c) wavelength sensitivity and (d) intensity sensitivity near resonance wavelength from measured spectra in (a) and (b) [Insets: (c) resonance wavelength response and (d) intensity at resonant wavelength under glycerin solution from 0% to 100%.]

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sλ=λres/n,
SI=I/nI0.
2πλ0sinθ+m2πΛ=±ksp=±2πλ0Re{εmεdεm+εd},
Sλλ0n=Λnspn,

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