Abstract

We report a technique for rapidly mapping absorbing defects in optical materials, which act as laser-induced damage precursors, based on full-field photothermal reflectance microscopy. An intensity-modulated pump beam heats absorbing defects in the optical sample, creating localized, modulated refractive-index variations around the defects. A probe beam then illuminates the defect sites, and the measured amplitude of the reflectance variation is used to map the distribution of defects in the medium. Measurements show that this method offers a faster defect mapping speed of about 0.03mm2 per minute and a detectivity of a few tens of nanometers comparable to that of conventional scanning photothermal deflection microscopy.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. K. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. M. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

B. Bertussi, J.-Y. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Appl. Opt. 45, 1410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 230, 279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1973 (1)

Akhouayri, H.

Amra, C.

Bercegol, H.

Bertussi, B.

Bloembergen, N.

Bouchut, P.

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, D. K.

D. K. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. M. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, F.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, D. J.

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chow, R.

Christofferson, J.

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

DeMange, P.

Demos, S. G.

During, A.

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farzaneh, M.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Filloy, C.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fossati, C.

Fournier, D.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

Gatto, A.

Heise, H. M.

D. K. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. M. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R. D.

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hudgings, J. A.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerßen, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P. K.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuckuk, R.

D. K. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. M. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. K.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lounis, B.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lüerßen, D.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerßen, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maize, K.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, P. M.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerßen, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mica, I.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J.-Y.

Negres, R. A.

Neyer, A.

D. K. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. M. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavageau, S.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pipe, K. P.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polignano, M.-L.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raad, P. E.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerßen, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

Rullier, J.-L.

Shakouri, A.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Summers, J. A.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamarat, P.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Tessier, G.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weinzapfel, C. L.

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. L.

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, and Z. L. Wu, Appl. Opt. 39, 650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (2)

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerßen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 230, 279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Kozlowski, Opt. Eng. 36, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. K. Cai, A. Neyer, R. Kuckuk, and H. M. Heise, Opt. Mater. 30, 1157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. J. Stolz, D. J. Chinn, R. D. Huber, C. L. Weinzapfel, and Z. L. Wu, Proc. SPIE 5273, 141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of photothermal reflectance microscopy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Plots of reflected intensity waveforms at two different pixel locations, one (A) on the single microbead and the other (B) in the bead-free region in the PDMS mixture under irradiation by the intensity-modulated (1 Hz) pump beam. The positions of the respective pixels are indicated by A and B in the inset. (b) Frequency spectra of the corresponding waveforms in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical microscope image at 50 μm below the surface of the 100-μm-thick single PDMS layer containing sparsely dispersed 5.3-μm-diameter polystyrene microbeads. (b), (c) Photothermal reflectance images of the sample when the pump beam is on and off, respectively. The image area is 200μm(X)×148μm(Y).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Optical microscope image (44μm(X)×44μm(Y)) of the 50-μm-thick PDMS layer containing gold nanorods (25nm(width)×102nm(length) with an aspect ratio of 4.1). (b) Photothermal reflectance image of the sample. (c) Spatial profile of the thermoreflectance signal from the location marked by the white box in (b). (d) SNR histogram of 118 detected spots.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured axial (Z) profile of the photothermal reflectance signals of a single GNR against the relative diplacement of the sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photothermal reflectance images (a), (b) obtained with a 80-μm-thick bare PDMS layer at depths of 15 and 23 μm below the surface, respectively. Submicrometer spots are clearly seen in each image, representing the absorbing defects. The average power density of the pump beam was set to 52W/cm2 for both measurements. The image (200μm(X)×148μm(Y)) was obtained in 50 s by computing the cumulative average over 50 images.

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