Abstract

We demonstrate a resolution upgrade toward 6 bit optical quantization using a power-to-wavelength conversion without an increment of system parallelism. Expansion of a full-scale input range is employed in conjunction with reduction of a quantization step size with keeping a sampling-rate transparency characteristic over several 100sGS/s. The effective number of bits is estimated to 5.74 bit, and the integral nonlinearity error and differential nonlinearity error are estimated to less than 1 least significant bit.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Y. Miyoshi, S. Takagi, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 34, 839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Asano, K.

Bhushan, A. S.

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 34, 839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bogoni, A.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

Byun, H.

Chen, J.

Coppinger, F.

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 34, 839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

DiLello, N. A.

Dispenza, M.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

Eggleton, B. J.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Galili, M.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Galvanauskas, A.

Geis, M. W.

Ghelfi, P.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

Grein, M. E.

Harter, D.

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hoyt, J. L.

Hu, H.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Hvam, J. M.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Ichioka, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Iredale, T.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

T. Satoh, T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, and K. Itoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 830 (2012).

T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, T. Satoh, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 19, 16106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 15, 15812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 34, 839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Ji, H.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Khilo, A.

Kitayama, K.

Konishi, T.

Krtner, F. X.

Laperle, C.

C. Laperle, Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC13 (2013), paper OTh1F.

Luan, F.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Magi, E.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, H.

T. Satoh, T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, and K. Itoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 830 (2012).

T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, T. Satoh, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 19, 16106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, Y.

Motamedi, A.

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nishitani, T.

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 15, 15812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oda, S.

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J. S.

Oshita, Y.

Oxenlowe, L. K.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Pelusi, M. D.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M. Y.

Perrott, M.

Pierno, L.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

Popovi, M. A.

Poti, L.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

Pu, M.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Ram, R. J.

Sander, M. Y.

Satoh, T.

T. Satoh, T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, and K. Itoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 830 (2012).

T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, T. Satoh, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 19, 16106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shoop, B. L.

B. L. Shoop, Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Springer-Verlag, 2001) Chap. 1, p. 1, Chap. 2, p. 7.

Smith, H. I.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

Spector, S. J.

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Takagi, S.

Takahashi, K.

T. Satoh, T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, and K. Itoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 830 (2012).

T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, T. Satoh, and K. Itoh, Opt. Express 19, 16106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, K.

Thienpont, H.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, G.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

Valley, G. C.

Van Erps, J.

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. P.

Yoon, J. U.

Yvind, K.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

Zhou, G.-R.

Electron. Lett. (2)

F. Luan, J. Van Erps, M. D. Pelusi, E. Magi, T. Iredale, H. Thienpont, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 46, 223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 34, 839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Satoh, T. Konishi, K. Takahashi, H. Matsui, and K. Itoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 830 (2012).

S. Oda and A. Maruta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

B. L. Shoop, Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Springer-Verlag, 2001) Chap. 1, p. 1, Chap. 2, p. 7.

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Society, “IEEE standard for terminology and test methods for analog-to-digital converters,” (2011).

C. Laperle, Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC13 (2013), paper OTh1F.

H. Ji, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, Proceedings of OFC 2010 (2010), paper PDPC7.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, G. Tonelli, A. Bogoni, P. Ghelfi, and L. Poti, 2008 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2008), p 236.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of optical quantization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup of 6 bit optical quantization: EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DCF, dispersion-compensated fiber; SMF, single-mode fiber; HNLF, high nonlinear fiber; VOA, variable optical attenuator; OA, optical attenuator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of pulse shape before quantization. (a) Autocorrelation trace without CPA. (b) Spectrum without CPA. (c) Autocorrelation trace with CPA. (d) Spectrum with CPA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results of power-to-wavelength conversion for optical quantization. (a) The variance of center wavelength shift. (b) Output spectra of colored level-identification signals.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

BER curves calculated for signals of the back-to-back and 32 port at the sampling rate 10GS/s.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimentally obtained quantized function of 6 bit optical quantization.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Integral nonlinearity error and differential nonlinearity error.

Equations (2)

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NOB=log2(λshift+ΔλFWHMΔλFWHM),
ENOB=0.5log2(SINAD)0.5log2(1.5).

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