Abstract

We report on the design and experimental demonstration of array-enhanced nanoantennas for polarization-controlled multispectral nanofocusing in the near-IR spectral range. We design plasmonic double bow-tie nanoantennas-coupled to multiple-periodic nanoparticle arrays to harvest radiation of designed wavelengths from a large spatial area and to focus it into a targeted nanoscale region. Near-field calculations were performed on a gold nanoantenna array using three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations. Cross-shaped optical nanoantennas were fabricated on glass substrates using electron beam lithography. The optical characterization of the fabricated nanoantennas was performed using second harmonic excitation spectroscopy that demonstrates multiwavelength photonic coupling in good agreement with the antenna modeling. The nanoantenna structures introduced in this Letter provide the ability to focus optical energy into deep subwavelength areas and to address multiple spectral regions with polarization control. Such attributes are highly desirable in optical biosensing, enhanced Raman scattering, and for nonlinear plasmonic applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Walsh and L. Dal Negro, Nano Lett. 13, 3111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Navarro-Cia and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 6, 3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

S. V. Boriskina and L. Dal Negro, Opt. Lett. 35, 538 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 12606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. Chen, A. De Castro, and Y. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abel, B.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amsden, J. J.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, R.

Boltasseva, A.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

Cabrini, S.

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, Nano Lett. 11, 2008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Chen, C.

C. Chen, A. De Castro, and Y. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

De Castro, A.

C. Chen, A. De Castro, and Y. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

Dhuey, S.

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duwe, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Erramilli, S.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

Gresillon, S.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. K.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-S.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

Kildishev, A. V.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

M. Navarro-Cia and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 6, 3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Cia, M.

M. Navarro-Cia and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 6, 3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Omenetto, F. G.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, R. H.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 12606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

C. Chen, A. De Castro, and Y. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sivis, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J.-P.

Trevino, J.

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, Nano Lett. 11, 2008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G. F.

G. F. Walsh and L. Dal Negro, Nano Lett. 13, 3111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weber-Bargioni, A.

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. W.

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A. A.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

Yuan, H.-K.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 12606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Navarro-Cia and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 6, 3537 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 12606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

Z. Zhang, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. W. Wu, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, Nano Lett. 9, 4505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, Nano Lett. 11, 2008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Walsh and L. Dal Negro, Nano Lett. 13, 3111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Chen, A. De Castro, and Y. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Antenna chain designed for near-field enhancement at 780 nm and near-field calculation of the electric field distribution in the dashed area at that wavelength. (b) Antenna chain designed for near field enhancement at 860 nm and near-field calculation of the electric field distribution in the dashed area at that wavelength. (c) Maximum near-field enhancement spectra in the DBA region for (black) DBA only, (blue) DBA and linear grating optimized for 780 nm [configuration 1(a)], and (red) DBA and linear grating optimized for 860 nm [configuration 1(b)].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optimized multiwavelength nanoantenna array geometry. (b) Double bow-tie antenna (DBA) at center of antenna array. (c) SEM micrograph of EBL fabricated gold nanoantenna array. (d) Close up SEM micrograph of DBA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Pump (λω=760nm) power dependence of SH signal (λ2ω=380nm) from representative array. (Inset) Diagram of SH-E experimental setup. (b) Experimentally measured SH-E spectra of the antenna arrays as a function of the polarization angle as in the legend. (c) FDTD calculation of the spatially averaged near-field enhancement of the nanoantenna arrays for plane wave excitation with a polarization angle of 0° (red) and 90° (black).

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