Abstract

We propose and theoretically verify an efficient mechanism of broadband coupling between incident light and on-chip dielectric slot waveguide by employing a tapered plasmonic nanoantenna. The nanoantenna receives free space radiation and couples it to a dielectric slot waveguide with the efficiency of up to 20% in a broad spectral range, having a small footprint as compared with the currently used narrowband dielectric grating couplers. We argue that the frequency selective properties of such nanoantennas also allow for using them as ultrasmall on-chip multiplexer/demultiplexer devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2012, 839474 (2012).
  2. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wen, S. Romanov, and U. Peschel, Opt. Express 17, 5925 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Cengiz Onbasli and A. K. Okyay, Proc. SPIE 7757, 77573R (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, G. Biagi, T. Holmgaard, and A. Lavrinenko, Opt. Lett. 37, 1124 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1626 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Yang, R. A. Wahsheh, Zh. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, Opt. Lett. 35, 649 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Covey and R. T. Chen, Opt. Express 21, 10886 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).
  10. I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).
  11. I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 239, 213 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  14. M. Belotti, J. Galisteo López, S. De Angelis, M. Galli, I. Maksymov, L. Andreani, D. Peyrade, and Y. Chen, Opt. Express 16, 11624 (2008).
  15. I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 011801(R) (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).
  17. F. J. González and J. Alda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.
  19. A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Covey and R. T. Chen, Opt. Express 21, 10886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, G. Biagi, T. Holmgaard, and A. Lavrinenko, Opt. Lett. 37, 1124 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 011801(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2012, 839474 (2012).

2011 (1)

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

2010 (4)

F. J. González and J. Alda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Cengiz Onbasli and A. K. Okyay, Proc. SPIE 7757, 77573R (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Yang, R. A. Wahsheh, Zh. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, Opt. Lett. 35, 649 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 239, 213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1626 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abushagur, M. A. G.

Alda, J.

F. J. González and J. Alda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L.

Andryieuski, A.

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2012, 839474 (2012).

A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, G. Biagi, T. Holmgaard, and A. Lavrinenko, Opt. Lett. 37, 1124 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Belotti, M.

Belov, P.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Biagi, G.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burgos, S. P.

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cengiz Onbasli, M.

M. Cengiz Onbasli and A. K. Okyay, Proc. SPIE 7757, 77573R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.

Covey, J.

Davoyan, A. R.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

De Angelis, S.

Decker, M.

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Galisteo López, J.

Galli, M.

González, F. J.

F. J. González and J. Alda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Jagadish, C.

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

Kivshar, Yu. S.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).

I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 011801(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Kriesch, A.

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2012, 839474 (2012).

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Lipson, M.

Lu, Zh.

Maksymov, I.

Maksymov, I. S.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).

I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 011801(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 239, 213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malureanu, R.

Marsal, L. F.

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 239, 213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).

I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 011801(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

Neshev, D.

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

Okyay, A. K.

M. Cengiz Onbasli and A. K. Okyay, Proc. SPIE 7757, 77573R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pallarès, J.

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 239, 213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Peschel, U.

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wen, S. Romanov, and U. Peschel, Opt. Express 17, 5925 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peyrade, D.

Pfeifer, H.

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ploss, D.

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, S.

Simovski, C.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

Staude, I.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

Ustyantsev, M. A.

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

Wahsheh, R. A.

Wen, J.

Xu, Q.

Yang, R.

Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. (1)

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2012, 839474 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. J. González and J. Alda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, J. Nanophoton. 1, 65 (2013).

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Kriesch, S. P. Burgos, D. Ploss, H. Pfeifer, H. A. Atwater, and U. Peschel, Nano Lett. 13, 4539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 239, 213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Maksymov, L. F. Marsal, M. A. Ustyantsev, and J. Pallarès, Opt. Commun. 248, 469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 86, 011801(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, C. Simovski, P. Belov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 5, 347 (2011).

I. Staude, I. S. Maksymov, M. Decker, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Neshev, C. Jagadish, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Status Solidi 6, 466 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Cengiz Onbasli and A. K. Okyay, Proc. SPIE 7757, 77573R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP25.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Broadband coupling of light from free space to an on-chip dielectric slot waveguide by means of a tapered plasmonic nanoantenna. Light can be focused either using a lens (shown schematically) or a lensed optical fiber. Both nanoantenna and waveguide are placed on a dielectric substrate with low refractive index nS=1.45. The substrate area is incomparably larger than the footprint of the nanoantenna and waveguide. The air slot waveguide of width w=50 nm is created by two high refractive index (nH=3.4) bars with dimension h=225nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operating wavelengths of the tapered nanoantenna receiving light from the dielectric slot waveguide. (a) Light spectra received by the individual elements of the nanoantenna. (b) Operating frequencies extracted from the maxima (a). Straight black line confirms the direct correlation between the operating wavelengths and the lengths of the nanoantenna elements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(i) Simulation of the light focusing from the far field on the tapered nanoantenna coupled to the waveguide (leftmost column), isolated antenna without waveguide (central column) and the waveguide without the nanoantenna (rightmost column). All panels show the intensity of the major electric field component of both nanoantenna and waveguide (|Ey|2) in the xz-plane of Fig. 1 going through the middle of the nanoantenna and the waveguide slot. All colormap plots are normalized to unity to allow a better comparison of the intensity profiles. Straight lines show the contours of the nanoantenna, waveguide, and substrate. For example, in panel (a) small squares denote the cross section of the nanoantenna rods and the rectangle denotes a section of the waveguide. The space below is the substrate. (j) Extracted coupling efficiency. Dashed line: light is focused on the surface of the isolated waveguide. Solid line: light is focused on the nanoantenna coupled to the waveguide. |Ey|2 color maps on the nanoantenna surface are shown in the insets.

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