Abstract

We demonstrated that by using a pump field with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the polarization self-rotation squeezing process it is possible to generate a squeezed vacuum optical field with the matching OAM. We found a similar level of maximum quantum noise reduction for a first-order Laguerre–Gaussian pump beam and a regular Gaussian pump beam, even though the optimal operational conditions differed in these two cases. Also, we investigated the effect of self-defocusing on the level of the vacuum squeezing by simultaneously monitoring the minimum quantum noise level and the output beam transverse profile at various pump laser powers and atomic densities and found no direct correlations between the increased beam size and the degree of measured squeezing.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices (Nova Science Publishers, 1999).
  2. D. L. Andrews, Structured Light and Its Applications: An Introduction to Phase-Structured Beams and Nanoscale Optical Forces (Academic, 2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. T. S. Horrom, “Experimental generation and manipulation of quantum squeezed vacuum via polarization self-rotation in Rb vapor,” Ph.D. thesis (College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, 2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Horrom, R. Singh, J. P. Dowling, and E. E. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, Phys. Rev. A 83, 063823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. Chen and W. She, Opt. Lett. 34, 1855 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Grischkowsky and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. A 6, 1566 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Altman, A. R.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews, Structured Light and Its Applications: An Introduction to Phase-Structured Beams and Nanoscale Optical Forces (Academic, 2008).

Armstrong, J. A.

D. Grischkowsky and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. A 6, 1566 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A. A.

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, G. A.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, J. T.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, S.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, V.

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brezger, B.

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Corndorf, E.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

T. Horrom, R. Singh, J. P. Dowling, and E. E. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Failache, H.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gorshkov, A. V.

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, Phys. Rev. A 83, 063823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. A 6, 1566 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Horrom, T.

T. Horrom, R. Singh, J. P. Dowling, and E. E. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Horrom, T. S.

T. S. Horrom, “Experimental generation and manipulation of quantum squeezed vacuum via polarization self-rotation in Rb vapor,” Ph.D. thesis (College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, 2013).

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Janousek, J.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. M.

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D. F.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Köprülü, K. G.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemons, K.

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lezama, A.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marino, A. M.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, C. F.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, E. E.

T. Horrom, R. Singh, J. P. Dowling, and E. E. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morizur, J.-F.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noel, T. W.

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, Phys. Rev. A 83, 063823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Mikhailov and I. Novikova, Opt. Lett. 33, 1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osorio, C. I.

Phillips, N. B.

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, Phys. Rev. A 83, 063823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pooser, R. C.

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ries, J.

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

She, W.

Singh, R.

T. Horrom, R. Singh, J. P. Dowling, and E. E. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Staliunas, K.

M. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices (Nova Science Publishers, 1999).

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Torres, C. I. Osorio, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 29, 1939 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Torres, C. I. Osorio, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 29, 1939 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Treps, N.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Valente, P.

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M.

M. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices (Nova Science Publishers, 1999).

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-C.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. C.

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. E. Mikhailov, A. Lezama, T. W. Noel, and I. Novikova, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. Lam, C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, Nat. Photonics 3, 399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

S. Barreiro, P. Valente, H. Failache, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 84, 033851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Horrom, R. Singh, J. P. Dowling, and E. E. Mikhailov, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. A 6, 1566 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and S. M. Rochester, Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ries, B. Brezger, and A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 68, 025801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, Phys. Rev. A 83, 063823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, R. C. Pooser, P. D. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. M. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. S. Horrom, “Experimental generation and manipulation of quantum squeezed vacuum via polarization self-rotation in Rb vapor,” Ph.D. thesis (College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, 2013).

M. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, Optical Vortices (Nova Science Publishers, 1999).

D. L. Andrews, Structured Light and Its Applications: An Introduction to Phase-Structured Beams and Nanoscale Optical Forces (Academic, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. SMPM, single-mode polarization-maintaining fiber; λ/2, half-wave plate; GP, Glan-laser polarizer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PhR, phase-retarding wave plate; BPD, balanced photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transverse profiles of a Gaussian (top) and vortex (bottom) beams after interaction with the Rb vapor cell at different atomic densities. The red (light gray) circles are shown to aid visual comparison of beam sizes in low and high atomic density cases for the Gaussian and vortex beams, correspondingly.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured minimum quadrature noise power (top row) and the relative beam expansion (bottom row) for the pump beam with the Gaussian (left column) and Laguerre–Gaussian (right column) distributions as functions of the pump power and the atomic density. The beam expansion was measured as the ratio of the measured waist (w) [from fits (1) and (2)] to its value at low temperature (w0), where self-defocusing was negligible. For quantum noise measurements, zero corresponds to the shot noise level. Spectrum analyzer detection frequency was 1 MHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured minimum quadrature noise power as a function of position of the focal point and the pump power. Zero displacement corresponds to the Gaussian pump laser focused at the center of the vapor cell. For quantum noise measurements, zero corresponds to the shot noise level. Spectrum analyzer detection frequency was 1 MHz.

Equations (2)

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I(r)=I02r2w2e2r2w2,
I(r)=I0e2r2w2.

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