Abstract

We demonstrate an array of erbium-doped waveguide-distributed feedback lasers on an ultra-low-loss Si3N4 platform. Sidewall gratings providing the lasing feedback are defined in the silicon-nitride layer using 248 nm stepper lithography, while the gain is provided by a reactive co-sputtered erbium-doped aluminum-oxide layer. We observe lasing output over a 12 nm wavelength range (1531–1543 nm) from the array of five separate lasers. Output powers of 8 μW and lasing linewidths of 501 kHz are obtained. Single-mode operation is confirmed, with side-mode suppression ratios over 35 dB for all designs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.
  2. E. W. Eloranta, Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2008), Chap. 5.
  3. J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 24090 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Belt, J. Bovington, R. Moreira, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, Opt. Express 21, 1181 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.
  7. J. D. B. Bradley, L. Agazzi, D. Geskus, F. Ay, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 187 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, L. Agazzi, M. R. H. Khan, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Opt. Lett. 35, 2394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.
  10. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Purnawirman, J. Sun, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Lett. 38, 1760 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Ay and A. Aydinli, Opt. Mater. 26, 33 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. H. Bernhardi, “Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Twente, 2012).
  15. J. Bradley, “Al2O3:Er3+ as a gain platform for integrated optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Twente, 2009).
  16. P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 5.
  18. C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, Opt. Mater. 26, 33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adam, T. N.

Agazzi, L.

Aravazhi, S.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ay, F.

J. D. B. Bradley, L. Agazzi, D. Geskus, F. Ay, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, Opt. Mater. 26, 33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, Opt. Mater. 26, 33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

M. Belt, J. Bovington, R. Moreira, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, Opt. Express 21, 1181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 24090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.

Belt, M.

M. Belt, J. Bovington, R. Moreira, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, Opt. Express 21, 1181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.

Bernhardi, E. H.

E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, L. Agazzi, M. R. H. Khan, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Opt. Lett. 35, 2394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Bernhardi, “Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Twente, 2012).

Blauwendraat, T. P.

K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

M. Belt, J. Bovington, R. Moreira, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, Opt. Express 21, 1181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 24090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.

Bovington, J.

Bowers, J. E.

M. Belt, J. Bovington, R. Moreira, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, Opt. Express 21, 1181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 24090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.

Bradley, J.

J. Bradley, “Al2O3:Er3+ as a gain platform for integrated optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Twente, 2009).

Bradley, J. D. B.

Bruinink, C. M.

Burns, P.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 5.

Coolbaugh, D.

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 5.

Davenport, M. L.

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

Dawes, J. M.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

Dekker, P.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2008), Chap. 5.

Fang, A. W.

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

Garcia, J. M.

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

Garcia-Blanco, S. M.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geskus, D.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. B. Bradley, L. Agazzi, D. Geskus, F. Ay, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

M. Belt, J. Bovington, R. Moreira, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, Opt. Express 21, 1181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 24090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.

Heideman, R. G.

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, E. S.

Jiang, S.

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827 (2005).
[CrossRef]

John, D. D.

Khan, M. R. H.

Leake, G.

Leinse, A.

Lively, E.

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

Mašanovic, M. L.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 5.

Moreira, R.

Nguyen, K. N.

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

Piels, M.

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

Piper, J. A.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. B. Bradley, L. Agazzi, D. Geskus, F. Ay, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, L. Agazzi, M. R. H. Khan, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, Opt. Lett. 35, 2394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

Purnawirman,

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

Spiegelberg, C.

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

van Wolferen, H. A. G. M.

Wang, J.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Wörhoff, K.

Zhang, H.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. Garcia-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, Adv. Mater. 24, OP19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Wörhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, Opt. Mater. 26, 33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

E. H. Bernhardi, “Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Twente, 2012).

J. Bradley, “Al2O3:Er3+ as a gain platform for integrated optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Twente, 2009).

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 5.

M. Belt, M. J. R. Heck, J. S. Barton, J. F. Bauters, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTu3C.3.

K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3G.2.

E. W. Eloranta, Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2008), Chap. 5.

M. L. Davenport, J. F. Bauters, M. Piels, M. J. R. Heck, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5C.5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross-section diagram of the Al2O3:Er3+ ULLW lasing structure. (b) Simulated TE-mode profile for the lasing light at 1531 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Top-down schematic view of the DFB laser cavity. (b) SEM micrograph of the fabricated device. The quarter-wave shift section is visible in the center of the figure. The wave-like functional form of the fabricated device differs from the intended square-like form of the device design due to an overexposure of the photoresist during the lithography step.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement setup of the experiment. The inset photo shows the device under 974 nm excitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

On-chip single-sided lasing output power versus pump laser input power for the DFB operating at 1543 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Superimposed output laser spectra as measured with an OSA.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental setup for the self-heterodyne linewidth measurement technique.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured RF power spectrum for the laser operating at 1537 nm. For the measurement the resolution bandwidth of the ESA was set at 10 kHz.

Metrics