Abstract

Dynamic Brillouin gratings (DBGs), inscribed by comodulating two writing pump waves with a perfect Golomb code, are demonstrated and characterized experimentally. Compared with pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) modulation of the pump waves, the Golomb code provides lower off-peak reflectivity due to the unique properties of its cyclic autocorrelation function. Golomb-coded DBGs allow the long variable delay of one-time probe waveforms with higher signal-to-noise ratios, and without averaging. As an example, the variable delay of return-to-zero, on–off keyed data at a 1Gbit/s rate, by as much as 10 ns, is demonstrated successfully. The eye diagram of the reflected waveform remains open, whereas PRBS modulation of the pump waves results in a closed eye. The variable delay of data at 2.5Gbit/s is reported as well, with a marginally open eye diagram. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1347 (2013).
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2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

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Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
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2006 (1)

1992 (1)

S. W. Golomb, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 28, 383 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

Antman, Y.

Bao, X.

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R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43, pp. 497–530.

Chen, L.

Chin, S.

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thevenaz, Opt. Express 20, 6157 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 189 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), Torino, Italy, 2010.

Dai, Y.

Denisov, A.

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thevenaz, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Eyal, A.

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gauthier, D. J.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43, pp. 497–530.

Golomb, S. W.

S. W. Golomb, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 28, 383 (1992).
[CrossRef]

González Herráez, M.

He, Z.

Hotate, K.

Khurgin, J. B.

J. B. Khurgin, Slow Light—Science and Applications (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 293–320.

Langrock, C.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, S. B.

Levanon, N.

Lipson, M.

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Primerov, N.

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thevenaz, Opt. Express 20, 6157 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thevenaz, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 189 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thevenaz, and A. Zadok, Opt. Express 20, 7807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), Torino, Italy, 2010.

Roussev, R.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

Sancho, J.

Santagiustina, M.

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Santagiustina and L. Ursini, Opt. Lett. 37, 893 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. Y.

Thevenaz, L.

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thevenaz, Opt. Express 20, 6157 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thevenaz, and A. Zadok, Opt. Express 20, 7807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thevenaz, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 189 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Thevenaz, Nat. Photonics 2, 474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), Torino, Italy, 2010.

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Ursini, L.

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Santagiustina and L. Ursini, Opt. Lett. 37, 893 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H. G.

Xu, C.

Yan, L.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zadok, A.

Zhou, D.-P.

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. E. Sharping, and A. Gaeta, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 189 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

S. W. Golomb, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 28, 383 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. W. Boyd and P. Narum, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thevenaz, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Thevenaz, Nat. Photonics 2, 474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thevenaz, Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43, pp. 497–530.

J. B. Khurgin, Slow Light—Science and Applications (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 293–320.

S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), Torino, Italy, 2010.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for generation and interrogation of stationary and localized DBGs. MW, microwave.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured eye diagrams of 2.5Gbit/s RZ, OOK PRBS probe waves, with the DBG temporarily replaced by an equivalent attenuator of 64 dB.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative reflected power from stationary and localized DBGs as a function of time (“impulse response”). The interrogating probe waveform was a single, isolated pulse of 200 ps duration. Blue, Golomb-coded DBG; red, PRBS-coded DBG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variable delay of single, isolated probe pulses using Golomb-coded stationary and localized DBGs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured eye diagrams of 1Gbit/s RZ, OOK PRBS probe waves, reflected from DBGs that were written by Golomb code modulation of the pump waves (top) and PRBS modulation (bottom). The pump modulation rate was 5Gbit/s.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated eye diagrams of 1Gbit/s RZ, OOK PRBS probe waves, reflected from DBGs that were written by Golomb code modulation of the pump waves (top) and PRBS modulation (bottom). The pump modulation rate was 5Gbit/s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured eye diagrams of 2.5Gbit/s RZ, OOK PRBS probe waves, reflected from DBGs that were written by Golomb code modulation of the pump waves (top) and PRBS modulation (bottom). The pump modulation rate was 5Gbit/s.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated eye diagrams of 2.5Gbit/s RZ, OOK PRBS probe waves, reflected from DBGs that were written by Golomb code modulation of the pump waves (top) and PRBS modulation (bottom). The pump modulation rate was 5Gbit/s.

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RN(l)n=n0Nn0ananl*,
νsig=ν2+Δν=ν2+(Δng/n)ν2.

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