Abstract

Broadband optoacoustic waves generated by biological tissues excited with nanosecond laser pulses carry information corresponding to a wide range of geometrical scales. Typically, the frequency content present in the signals generated during optoacoustic imaging is much larger compared to the frequency band captured by common ultrasonic detectors, the latter typically acting as bandpass filters. To image optical absorption within structures ranging from entire organs to microvasculature in three dimensions, we implemented optoacoustic tomography with two ultrasound linear arrays featuring a center frequency of 6 and 24 MHz, respectively. In the present work, we show that complementary information on anatomical features could be retrieved and provide a better understanding on the localization of structures in the general anatomy by analyzing multi-bandwidth datasets acquired on a freshly excised kidney.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
  2. P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acta Acust. United Acust. 80, 339 (1994).
  5. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Razansky, A. Buehler, and V. Ntziachristos, Nature Protocols 6, 1121 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).
  11. M. Omar, J. Gateau, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 38, 2472 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

2013 (2)

J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Omar, J. Gateau, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 38, 2472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, A. Buehler, and V. Ntziachristos, Nature Protocols 6, 1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).

2009 (2)

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acta Acust. United Acust. 80, 339 (1994).

Beard, P.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brecht, H. P.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, A.

D. Razansky, A. Buehler, and V. Ntziachristos, Nature Protocols 6, 1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, M. A. A.

J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Conjusteau, A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cox, B.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Del Rio, S. P.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, G. J.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acta Acust. United Acust. 80, 339 (1994).

Dima, A.

J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Distel, M.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Doyle, R. P.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ermilov, S. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, M.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gateau, J.

J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Omar, J. Gateau, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 38, 2472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Geng, K.

K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koster, R. W.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lam, R. B.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lamperti, E. D.

M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lihong, V. W.

K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Ntziachristos, V.

J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Omar, J. Gateau, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 38, 2472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, A. Buehler, and V. Ntziachristos, Nature Protocols 6, 1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Omar, M.

Oraevsky, A. A.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedley, B.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perrimon, N.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Razansky, D.

R. Ma, S. Söntges, S. Shoham, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, A. Buehler, and V. Ntziachristos, Nature Protocols 6, 1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, L. M.

M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

Schulte, E.

M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

Schumacher, U.

M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

Schünke, M.

M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

Shoham, S.

Söntges, S.

Su, R.

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acta Acust. United Acust. 80, 339 (1994).

Treeby, B.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xueding, W.

K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, E.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Acta Acust. United Acust. (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acta Acust. United Acust. 80, 339 (1994).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Interface Focus (1)

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

H. P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 056016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Med. Physics (2)

J. Gateau, M. A. A. Caballero, A. Dima, and V. Ntziachristos, Med. Physics 40, 013302 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, Med. Physics 37, 6096 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Koster, and V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Photonics 3, 412 (2009).

Nature Protocols (1)

D. Razansky, A. Buehler, and V. Ntziachristos, Nature Protocols 6, 1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Medicine Biol. (1)

K. Geng, W. Xueding, S. George, and V. W. Lihong, Phys. Medicine Biol. 49, 1329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 67, 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Schünke, E. Schulte, U. Schumacher, L. M. Ross, and E. D. Lamperti, Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: Neck and Internal Organs (Thieme Medical, 2010).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (3093 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2611 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic top view of the experimental setup. (b) Annotated picture showing the arrangement of the two motors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Annotated picture of an excited kidney in a turbid agar gel. The upper-front part of the agar gel was removed to disclose the kidney, and a metric steel ruler was placed on the side for size reference. (b)–(d) MAP images along the x axis from the reconstructions of tomographic datasets acquired with (b) the 6 MHz array, (c) the 24 MHz array. (d) Color composite image of (b) in red and (c) in gray color scales. The color scales are logarithmic and correspond to (b) 16 dB and (c) 9 dB ranges. The dashed lines on (b) indicate the vertical limits of (c) and (d). (Media 1). The empty arrows indicate regions specifically visible in the image obtained with the 6 MHz array, such as the renal cortex and a segmental vessel. Conversely, the full arrows point out at areas where microvasculature is revealed in the images obtained with the 24 MHz array. The superimposed marks on the side of (b) and (c) indicate two slices displayed in Fig. 3. Legend: 1. Renal vein; 2. Segmental vessels; 3. Interlobar vessel; 4. Arcuate vessels; 5. Interlobular vessels. The anatomical features were correlated with published anatomy [15].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two in-plane slices of the excised kidney: slice 1 (a)–(d) and slice 2 (e)–(h) positions are indicated with the superimposed marks in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c). The slices are presented ordered by increasing z (Media 2). Reconstructions acquired with (a) and (e) the 6 MHz array, (c) and (g) the 24 MHz array. The images are normalized with the maximum voxel value of the 3D image and threshold for better visualization. (b) and (f) color composite images of (a) and (c) or (e) and (g), respectively. (a) and (e) are displayed in red color scale and (c) and (g) in gray color scale. (d) and (h) corresponding red-filtered photographs of the frozen and sectioned kidney. The empty arrows indicate areas specifically visible in images obtained with the 6 MHz array, such as the renal vein, the renal pelvis, and the renal cortex. Conversely, the full arrows indicate microvasculature revealed in images obtained with the 24 MHz array. Legend: 1. Renal pelvis; 2. Segmental artery; 3. Interlobular vessels; 4. Segmental vein; 5. Interlobar or arcuate vessels; 6. Medullary pyramid with the vasa recta; 7. Arcuate vessel. The anatomical features were correlated with published anatomy [15].

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