Abstract

We report on a hybrid InP/Si photonic crystal nanobeam laser emitting at 1578 nm with a low threshold power of 14.7μW. Laser gain is provided from a single InAsP quantum well embedded in a 155 nm InP layer bonded on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer. This miniaturized nanolaser, with an extremely small modal volume of 0.375(λ/n)3, is a promising and efficient light source for silicon photonics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects—The Silicon Approach (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

2012 (3)

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fegadolli, G. Vargas, X. Wang, F. Valini, L. A. M. Barea, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Frateschi, A. Scherer, V. R. Almeida, and R. R. Panepucci, Opt. Express 20, 14722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, Y. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. Chen, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 12, 108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Arita, Y.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Atwater, H. A.

Augendre, E.

Baba, T.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bakir, B. B.

Barea, L. A. M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bordel, D.

Bowers, J.

Bowers, J. E.

Cahoon, J. F.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

Chang, S.-W.

S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

L. Feng, Y. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. Chen, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 12, 108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. C.

Chrostowski, L.

Chuang, S. L.

S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, D.

Day, R. W.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Descos, A.

Di Cioccio, L.

Diest, K. A.

Dong, P.

Donzella, V.

Fang, A.

Fang, A. W.

Fard, S. T.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fegadolli, W. S.

Feng, D.

Feng, L.

L. Feng, Y. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. Chen, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 12, 108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

Flueckiger, J.

Fournier, M.

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frateschi, N.

Fulbert, L.

Gardes, F. Y.

Ghaffari, A.

Grist, S. M.

Grosse, P.

Guillot, G.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects—The Silicon Approach (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Hachuda, S.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hjort, K.

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Hugonin, J. P.

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, Opt. Express 13, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, T. J.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T.

Kita, S.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, Y.

Lagahe, C.

Lalanne, P.

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, Opt. Express 13, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lecamp, G.

Li, G.

Liang, D.

Liang, H.

Lieber, C. M.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Loncar, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

L. Feng, Y. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. Chen, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 12, 108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

McCutcheon, M. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, T.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Nozaki, K.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, T.

Oliveira, J. E. B.

Olivier, N.

Otsuka, S.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, H.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 13, 9460 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pasquariello, D.

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects—The Silicon Approach (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Qian, W.

Ratner, D. M.

Reed, G. T.

Regreny, P.

Roelkens, G.

Romeo, P. R.

Rooks, M.

Saito, Y.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sauvan, C.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, S. A.

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shearn, M. J.

Shi, W.

Smit, M.

Song, K.

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. T.

Sun, X.

Thomson, D. J.

Valini, F.

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vargas, G.

Verstuyft, S.

Vlasov, Y.

Wang, X.

Watanabe, H.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Xu, Y.

L. Feng, Y. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. Chen, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 12, 108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zadok, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. Song, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 12, 4971 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

L. Feng, Y. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y. Chen, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 12, 108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, Nat. Photonics, 4, 511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 17, 20355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 13, 9460 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, Opt. Express 14, 8154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, Opt. Express 19, 11507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Opt. Express 15, 11934 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fegadolli, G. Vargas, X. Wang, F. Valini, L. A. M. Barea, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Frateschi, A. Scherer, V. R. Almeida, and R. R. Panepucci, Opt. Express 20, 14722 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, Opt. Express 21, 3861 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, Opt. Express 13, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, Opt. Express 21, 7994 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 19, 10317 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects—The Silicon Approach (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Theoretical Q-factor and resonant wavelength as a function of the ratio between S and α. (b) and (c) are, respectively, top and longitudinal view for the theoretical optical resonant mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(d) are the device’s micrographs under different angles and magnifications obtained by means of scanning electronic microscope (SEM).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Lasing spectrum and the corresponding laser mode pattern as an inset. (b) Output power (red) and resonant wavelength (blue) as a function of input power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser’s response as a function of wavelength for different duty cycles.

Equations (1)

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gth=1ΓE·Q2πng,aλ,

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