Abstract

As opposed to a conventional optical resonator, an off-axis-aligned cavity is able to transmit without distortion radiation modulated at a frequency even far above the cavity bandpass. This allows us to implement a simple spectroscopic technique that combines the cavity path-length enhancement of integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) and the noise reduction associated with radio-frequency modulation (FM). An FM-ICOS spectrometer is demonstrated for the first time using a two-tone modulation technique. The performance is compared to the traditional ICOS by examining the acetylene absorption at 1543.77 nm. A signal-to-noise ratio improvement by a factor 3.5 is found with our proof-of-concept setup. Larger improvements are expected in a more optimized setup.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Zybin, Y. A. Kuritsyn, V. R. Mironenko, and K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 78, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 43, 2257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. Dharamsi, J. Phys. D 29, 540 (1996).
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K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 49, 99 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

1980

1964

Allen, N. T.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

Anderson, J. G.

P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 45, 9221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bräuchle, C.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 49, 99 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Canosa-Mas, C. E.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clair, J. M. St.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. E.

Curl, R. F.

de Labachelerie, M.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dharamsi, A.

A. Dharamsi, J. Phys. D 29, 540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Drisdell, W. S.

Engel, G. S.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 45, 9221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

Gao, X.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gehrtz, M.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 49, 99 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Herriott, D. R.

Huang, T.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stockel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasyutich, V. L.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katsuda, T.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keutsch, F. N.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 45, 9221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kroll, J. H.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuritsyn, Y. A.

A. Zybin, Y. A. Kuritsyn, V. R. Mironenko, and K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 78, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L.

Lenth, W.

Ma, L.-S.

Maddaloni, P.

Malara, P.

P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mironenko, V. R.

A. Zybin, Y. A. Kuritsyn, V. R. Mironenko, and K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 78, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, E. J.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 45, 9221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K.

A. Zybin, Y. A. Kuritsyn, V. R. Mironenko, and K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 78, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

Pfrang, C.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roller, C.

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stockel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stockel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sayres, D. S.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shelkovnikov, A. S.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 49, 99 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stockel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stockel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Supplee, J. M.

Tittel, F. K.

Vaughan, S.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watjen, J. P.

Wayne, R. P.

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 49, 99 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Witinski, M. F.

P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zybin, A.

A. Zybin, Y. A. Kuritsyn, V. R. Mironenko, and K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 78, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. St. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 49, 99 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Malara, M. F. Witinski, F. Capasso, J. G. Anderson, and P. De Natale, Appl. Phys. B 108, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao, X. Gao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Wu, and H. Cha, Appl. Phys. B 86, 353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kasyutich, C. E. Canosa-Mas, C. Pfrang, S. Vaughan, and R. P. Wayne, Appl. Phys. B 75, 755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Zybin, Y. A. Kuritsyn, V. R. Mironenko, and K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 78, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stockel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

A. Dharamsi, J. Phys. D 29, 540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch illustrating the cavity transmission of three different modulation frequencies, ω1<ω2<ω3, applied to a carrier ωc. Top: on-axis alignment case. Bottom: off-axis cavity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the setup used to combine the OA-ICOS and the TTFMS techniques.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum analyzer traces of the OA cavity-output with the laser tuned to the center of the 6477.6312cm1 line of C2H2. Blue trace: no absorbing gas. Black trace: with absorbing gas. Inset: modulation signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) ICOS (black) and TTFM-ICOS (red) spectra of the 6477.6312cm1 line of C2H2. (b) Polynomial fit of the respective baseline traces. (c) Baseline residuals for the two techniques, normalized to the respective signal levels.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IT(t)(2T0T+T)cos(2ωmt).
T(ωi)=CpΓ21R+α(ωi)L,
NicosNFM-icos=σopt2+σel2σopt=1+σel2σopt2.

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