Abstract

We present optical trapping and manipulation of pure water and salt water airborne droplets of various sizes ranging from sub-micrometers up to several tens of micrometers in a holographic dual and single beam trap. In the dual beam trap, successful fusion of droplets as well as precise delivery of many droplets and manipulation of multiple droplets are demonstrated. Furthermore, employing the transfer of the orbital angular momentum of light from Laguerre–Gaussian beams, we show that the water droplets orbit around the beam propagation axis and their tangential speed can be controlled by beam waist magnitude. We also demonstrate that sub-micrometer sized pure water droplets can be trapped and manipulated by a single beam trap with a relatively low numerical aperture. In this case, multiple stable trapping positions were observed, both theoretically and experimentally, which were due to the optical intensity oscillations in the focal region of the laser beam.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
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  4. A. Jonáš and P. Zemánek, Electophoresis 29, 4813 (2008).
  5. P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, L. Šrámek, and M. Liška, Opt. Lett. 24, 1448 (1999).
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  8. T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 197 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 157 (2006).
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  21. G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 21, 189 (1977).
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  23. K. Taji, M. Tachikawa, and K. Nagashima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141111 (2006).
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  26. A. E. Carruthers, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, Opt. Express 18, 14238 (2010).
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  27. D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, New J. Phys. 11, 063022 (2009).
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  28. J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  32. N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Lett. 22, 52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
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  35. J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (IOP, 1986).
  36. The axial κze=0.5±0.1  pN/μm/W and lateral κxe=8±1  pN/μm/W stiffnesses corresponding to the left droplet in Fig. 5(a) fit very well with theoretical results for a droplet of diameter 280 nm: κzt=0.6  pN/μm/W, κxe=9  pN/μm/W.

2013 (1)

A. Kyrsting, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, Nano Lett. 13, 31 (2013).

2011 (2)

T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

M. Pitzek, R. Steiger, G. Thalhammer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Opt. Express 17, 19414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, New J. Phys. 11, 063022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

2008 (5)

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Summers, D. R. Burnham, and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 16, 7739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Jonáš and P. Zemánek, Electophoresis 29, 4813 (2008).

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, New J. Phys. 10, 113010 (2008).

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

K. Taji, M. Tachikawa, and K. Nagashima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Guillon, O. Moine, and B. Stout, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 157 (2006).

T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 197 (2006).

P. Jess, V. Garcés-Chávez, D. Smith, M. Mazilu, L. Paterson, A. Riches, C. Herrington, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 14, 5779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 14, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mitchem, R. J. Hopkins, J. Buajarern, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, P. Jákl, M. Šerý, J. Ježek, and M. Liška, Opt. Commun. 220, 401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1986 (1)

1977 (1)

G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 21, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

Anand, S.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Bendix, P. M.

A. Kyrsting, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, Nano Lett. 13, 31 (2013).

Bernet, S.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brzobohatý, O.

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buajarern, J.

L. Mitchem, R. J. Hopkins, J. Buajarern, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, D. R.

K. J. Knox, D. R. Burnham, L. I. McCann, S. L. Murphy, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, New J. Phys. 11, 063022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

M. D. Summers, D. R. Burnham, and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 16, 7739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 14, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. R.

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

Carruthers, A. E.

Chu, S.

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, New J. Phys. 10, 113010 (2008).

T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 197 (2006).

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 157 (2006).

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dewar, N.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Jess, V. Garcés-Chávez, D. Smith, M. Mazilu, L. Paterson, A. Riches, C. Herrington, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 14, 5779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, Opt. Lett. 22, 52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Jess, V. Garcés-Chávez, D. Smith, M. Mazilu, L. Paterson, A. Riches, C. Herrington, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 14, 5779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, P.

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guck, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guillon, M.

M. Guillon, O. Moine, and B. Stout, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herrington, C.

Hopkins, R. J.

L. Mitchem, R. J. Hopkins, J. Buajarern, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imbert, C.

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jákl, P.

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, P. Jákl, M. Šerý, J. Ježek, and M. Liška, Opt. Commun. 220, 401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jess, P.

Ježek, J.

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, P. Jákl, M. Šerý, J. Ježek, and M. Liška, Opt. Commun. 220, 401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jonáš, A.

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, New J. Phys. 10, 113010 (2008).

A. Jonáš and P. Zemánek, Electophoresis 29, 4813 (2008).

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, P. Jákl, M. Šerý, J. Ježek, and M. Liška, Opt. Commun. 220, 401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, and M. Liška, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, L. Šrámek, and M. Liška, Opt. Lett. 24, 1448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karásek, V.

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kas, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knox, K. J.

Kobayashi, T.

Kyrsting, A.

A. Kyrsting, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, Nano Lett. 13, 31 (2013).

Liška, M.

Mahmood, H.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

McCann, L. I.

McGloin, D.

K. J. Knox, D. R. Burnham, L. I. McCann, S. L. Murphy, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, New J. Phys. 11, 063022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

M. D. Summers, D. R. Burnham, and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 16, 7739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Burnham and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 14, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchem, L.

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

L. Mitchem, R. J. Hopkins, J. Buajarern, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moine, O.

M. Guillon, O. Moine, and B. Stout, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, T.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. Moon, C. Cunningham, and J. Kas, Biophys. J. 81, 767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, S. L.

Nagashima, K.

K. Taji, M. Tachikawa, and K. Nagashima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oddershede, L. B.

A. Kyrsting, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, Nano Lett. 13, 31 (2013).

Omori, R.

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

Padgett, M. J.

Pastel, R.

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

Pitzek, M.

Reid, J. P.

A. E. Carruthers, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, Opt. Express 18, 14238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Knox, D. R. Burnham, L. I. McCann, S. L. Murphy, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

L. Mitchem, R. J. Hopkins, J. Buajarern, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riches, A.

Ringle, R.

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Rogers, J.

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, C.

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 21, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, D.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Šerý, M.

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 157 (2006).

P. Zemánek, A. Jonáš, P. Jákl, M. Šerý, J. Ježek, and M. Liška, Opt. Commun. 220, 401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Šiler, M.

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, New J. Phys. 10, 113010 (2008).

T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 197 (2006).

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. B 84, 157 (2006).

Simpson, N. B.

Smith, D.

Šrámek, L.

Stamnes, J. J.

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (IOP, 1986).

Steiger, R.

Stout, B.

M. Guillon, O. Moine, and B. Stout, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Struthers, A.

R. Pastel, A. Struthers, R. Ringle, J. Rogers, C. Rohde, and P. Geiser, Am. J. Phys. 68, 993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Summers, M. D.

D. McGloin, D. R. Burnham, M. D. Summers, D. Rudd, N. Dewar, and S. Anand, Faraday Discuss. 137, 335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Summers, D. R. Burnham, and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 16, 7739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

Tachikawa, M.

K. Taji, M. Tachikawa, and K. Nagashima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taji, K.

K. Taji, M. Tachikawa, and K. Nagashima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thalhammer, G.

Ward, A. D.

L. Mitchem, R. J. Hopkins, J. Buajarern, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wills, J. B.

J. R. Butler, J. B. Wills, L. Mitchem, D. R. Burnham, D. McGloin, and J. P. Reid, Lab On Chip 9, 521 (2009).

Zemánek, P.

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The axial κze=0.5±0.1  pN/μm/W and lateral κxe=8±1  pN/μm/W stiffnesses corresponding to the left droplet in Fig. 5(a) fit very well with theoretical results for a droplet of diameter 280 nm: κzt=0.6  pN/μm/W, κxe=9  pN/μm/W.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two horizontally C-P laser beams (IPG Photonics, wavelength 1064 nm) were generated by a holographic mask imprinted onto a single spatial light modulator (SLM, Hamamatsu LCOS X10468-07) and transferred by relay optics into a sample chamber [30,31].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Salt water droplets optically trapped in two C-P Gaussian beams fused spontaneously into a droplet with a diameter of 15 μm (beam waist radius w0=1.6μm, laser beam power incident on the sample plane P=80mW).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental demonstration of the precise delivery of water droplets via the employment of the optical conveyor belt (C-P Gaussian beams with w0=3μm, P=220mW).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Water droplets were optically trapped in three pairs of C-P Gaussian beams (w0=910nm, P=650/3mW). The beams’ propagation axes were arranged laterally into the vertices of an equilateral triangle. Beams revolved around the axis of symmetry.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Water droplet orbiting around the optical axis of C-P coherent Laguerre–Gaussian beams of opposite topological charges ±1. The tangential speed of the droplet depends on the beam waist (top: w0,1=3.5μm, P1=150mW and bottom: w0,2=2.7μm, P2=240mW).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Experimental observation of two sub-micrometer droplets confined in the low NA OT [36]. (b)–(d) Theoretically (green circles) and experimentally (black stars) determined trapping positions combined with the optical intensity of the focused laser beam plotted in three transverse sections (xz, yz, and xy). The size of the green circles encodes the droplet radius a=25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150nm (w0=910nm, P=650mW). Dashed line denotes the plane corresponding to the position of the second droplet.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Two pure water droplets trapped in two independent low NA OTs (propagating in the z axis). Both traps gradually approached each other. After overcoming the surface tension, both droplets fused together and stayed trapped stably in the standing wave (w0=910nm, P=650mW).

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