Abstract

By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna’s resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Ruan and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Frimmer and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235428 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 773 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Frimmer and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

2002

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, and A. Lagendijk, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arbouet, A.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, L.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bankson, J. A.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Billaud, P.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Broyer, M.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Christofilos, D.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, P.

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, and A. Lagendijk, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, R.

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fatti, N. D.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Femius Koenderink, A.

M. Frimmer and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feth, N.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frimmer, M.

M. Frimmer and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Hazle, J. D.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hettich, C.

B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, L. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Huang, J.-S.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Huntzinger, J. R.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Husnik, M.

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998).

Kalkbrenner, T.

B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

König, M.

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, J. D.

J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka, Antennas (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Lagendijk, A.

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, and A. Lagendijk, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lounis, B.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marhefka, R. J.

J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka, Antennas (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meinzer, N.

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newton, R. G.

R. G. Newton, Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles (Springer, 1982).

Niegemann, J.

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Price, R. E.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Rivera, B.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruther, M.

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sershen, S. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Sersic, I.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, R. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamarat, P.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, Science 297, 1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, F.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Coevorden, D. V.

P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, and A. Lagendijk, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549 (2003).

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Meinzer, M. König, M. Ruther, S. Linden, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, Nat. Photonics 3, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Decker, N. Feth, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Frimmer and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. B 86, 235428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. C. Buchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Husnik, S. Linden, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallée, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Femius Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 233901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured scattering cross-section spectra (white open dots) and measured extinction cross-section spectra (black full dots). The solid curves are least-square fits to these data with Lorentz curves. The area underneath the scattering is filled with green, and the area between scattering and extinction in red. Hence, the red area corresponds to the absorption cross section. These data are shown for (a) an individual simple thin-wire antenna, (b) a rectangular antenna, and (c) a square-shaped antenna. All antennas are made of 35 nm thin gold on a 30 nm thin SiN membrane. Electron micrographs of the individual antennas are depicted as insets. We deduce a geometrical cross section of Cgeo=0.011μm2 for the wire antenna, Cgeo=0.051μm2 for the rectangular antenna, and Cgeo=0.151μm2 for the square-shaped antenna. The white double arrows indicate the incident horizontal linear polarization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Resonant extinction (full black dots), scattering (full green dots), absorption (full red dots), and geometrical (open blue dots) cross sections of different antennas as determined from the experimental data shown in Figs. 1 and 3. From left to right: wire-like antenna, slot antenna, bow-tie antenna, rectangular antenna, and square-shaped antenna (also see insets). The black horizontal dashed straight line indicates the extinction cross section of a single ideal point dipole of Cext=Csca=Copt=3/(2π)λ02=0.9μm2 at the resonance wavelength of λ0=1.37μm. The red horizontal dashed straight line indicates the corresponding maximum possible resonant absorption cross section Cabs=3/(8π)λ02, which can easily be derived from [14]. (b) Same, but calculated numerically for the geometrical parameters of the experiment along the lines of Ref. [11].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Same as Fig. 1, but for an individual (a) slot antenna and (b) bow-tie antenna. The geometrical cross section of the slot antenna is Cgeo=0.018μm2, and that of the bow-tie antenna is Cgeo=0.032μm2.

Equations (1)

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Cext=Csca=Copt=32πλ02,

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