Abstract

The electro-optic (EO) effect in nanodisordered potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystal is quantitatively investigated. It is found out that the EO coefficient of nanodisordered KTN crystal depends not only on the cooling temperature but also on the cooling rate. A larger EO coefficient can be obtained by employing a faster cooling rate. A Kerr EO efficient (s11s12=6.94×1014m2/V2) is obtained at a cooling rate of 0.45°C/s. The enhanced EO efficient by employing a faster cooling rate will be greatly beneficial for a variety of applications such as laser Q switches, laser pulse shaping, high-speed optical shutters, and modulating retroreflectors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

M. Shinagawa, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and Y. Sakai, Sens. Actuators A 192, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicni, A. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Dul’kin, S. Kojima, and M. Roth, Europhys. Lett. 97, 57004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. Ohta, J. Zushi, T. Ariizumi, and S. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, J. Agranat, and C. Conti, Nat. Photonics 5, 39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gumennik, Y. Segev, and A. Agranat, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 332 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Imai, M. Sasaura, K. Nakamura, and K. Fujiura, NTT Tech. Rev. 5, 1 (2007).

2006

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Smith and C. Hom, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 16, 433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Achour, Proc. SPIE 5641, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Bechtel, L. Galton, B. Robinson, and W. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Takanashi, J. Maclennan, and N. Clark, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987

G. Haertling, Ferroelectrics 75, 25 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cross, Ferroelectrics 76, 241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1967

1966

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Achour, M.

M. Achour, Proc. SPIE 5641, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A.

J. Parravicni, A. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gumennik, Y. Segev, and A. Agranat, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 332 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, J.

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, J. Agranat, and C. Conti, Nat. Photonics 5, 39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alam, S.

Angert, N.

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ariizumi, T.

R. Ohta, J. Zushi, T. Ariizumi, and S. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Attanansio, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Bechtel, L. Galton, B. Robinson, and W. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burris, H.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Clark, N.

H. Takanashi, J. Maclennan, and N. Clark, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

J. Parravicni, A. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, J. Agranat, and C. Conti, Nat. Photonics 5, 39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cross, L. E.

L. E. Cross, Ferroelectrics 76, 241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

J. Parravicni, A. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, J. Agranat, and C. Conti, Nat. Photonics 5, 39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dul’kin, E.

E. Dul’kin, S. Kojima, and M. Roth, Europhys. Lett. 97, 57004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Frawley, S.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujiura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Imai, M. Sasaura, K. Nakamura, and K. Fujiura, NTT Tech. Rev. 5, 1 (2007).

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galton, L.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Bechtel, L. Galton, B. Robinson, and W. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M.

Geusic, J. E.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gumennik, A.

Hacker, K.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haertling, G.

G. Haertling, Ferroelectrics 75, 25 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeiser, P.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), pp. 33–57.

Hass, W.

Hom, C.

R. Smith and C. Hom, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 16, 433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Imai, M. Sasaura, K. Nakamura, and K. Fujiura, NTT Tech. Rev. 5, 1 (2007).

Jeong, Y.

Johannes, R.

Kimball, B.

Kissa, K.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, J.

M. Shinagawa, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and Y. Sakai, Sens. Actuators A 192, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, S.

E. Dul’kin, S. Kojima, and M. Roth, Europhys. Lett. 97, 57004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ohta, J. Zushi, T. Ariizumi, and S. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. K.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

Lyszczarz, T.

Maack, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maclennan, J.

H. Takanashi, J. Maclennan, and N. Clark, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

Mathieu, B.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyazu, J.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Imai, M. Sasaura, K. Nakamura, and K. Fujiura, NTT Tech. Rev. 5, 1 (2007).

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Ohta, R.

R. Ohta, J. Zushi, T. Ariizumi, and S. Kojima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.

Parravicni, J.

J. Parravicni, A. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rabinocivh, W.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reese, S.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.

Robinson, B.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Bechtel, L. Galton, B. Robinson, and W. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

E. Dul’kin, S. Kojima, and M. Roth, Europhys. Lett. 97, 57004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

M. Shinagawa, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and Y. Sakai, Sens. Actuators A 192, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaura, M.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Imai, M. Sasaura, K. Nakamura, and K. Fujiura, NTT Tech. Rev. 5, 1 (2007).

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, W.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Segev, Y.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Bechtel, L. Galton, B. Robinson, and W. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shinagawa, M.

M. Shinagawa, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and Y. Sakai, Sens. Actuators A 192, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

R. Smith and C. Hom, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 16, 433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spinozzi, E.

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, J. Agranat, and C. Conti, Nat. Photonics 5, 39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Bechtel, L. Galton, B. Robinson, and W. Steier, Science 288, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suite, R.

P. Goetz, W. Rabinocivh, R. Mahon, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, R. Suite, W. Smith, H. Burris, C. Moore, W. Schultz, W. Freeman, S. Frawley, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30, 986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, H.

H. Takanashi, J. Maclennan, and N. Clark, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), pp. 33–57.

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), pp. 33–57.

Tseitlin, M.

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Vu, K.

Wemple, S. H.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 388 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeiser, D. Maack, D. Attanansio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, S.

M. Shinagawa, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and Y. Sakai, Sens. Actuators A 192, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Yi-Yan, A.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of polarization of KTN at different phases. (a) PE, (b) super PE, and (c) FE phases.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated modulation factor, Md, as a function of the FE cluster size, ΔL.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modulated light intensity as a function of applied voltage for different cooling rates. The measurement was performed in three different cooling rates of 0.14°C/s (solid line), 0.09°C/s (dashed line), and 0.03°C/s (dotted line). Modulated output intensity was normalized by input intensity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Quadratic EO coefficients s11s12 of KTN crystal as a function of temperature. The data was acquired at three different cooling rates of 0.45°C/s (solid square), 0.20°C/s (dashed diamond), and 0.03°C/s (dotted triangle), respectively. The solid lines (red, blue, and green) are fitted curves of quadratic EO coefficients during three cooling processes.

Equations (3)

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I=I0·12(1Md)·cos{2πLλ[Δp+η(ΔnfΔnp)]}.
Md=exp[8π2ΔL·Lλ2(ΔnfΔnp)2·η(1η)],
s11s12=λt2n03LVπ2.

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