Abstract

We present an on-chip optical sensor capable of detecting the direction of incident light. No off-chip optical or mechanical components or modifications—for example, baffles, slit structures, mirrors, etc.—are needed. The sensor was implemented in a standard 0.5 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. A pair of on-chip photodiodes separated by a metal “wall” (created by stacking all metal layers, contacts, and vias available in the process) is used to detect the direction of the incident light. This metal stack wall creates on-chip shadowing to facilitate detection so that the two photodiodes produce different amounts of photocurrent. A model for this device is presented. The analysis indicts that the ratio of the difference of these two currents to the larger of the two currents has a linear relationship with the angle of the incident light. Moreover, we also demonstrate this ratio is almost independent of the incident light intensity. Test results verify these two conclusions and show good sensitivity to light direction and immunity to light intensity. An accuracy of 1.6 deg over a 100 deg range is achieved by the linear relationship.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Mohammad and T. Karim, J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135, 0110131 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).
  3. M. Amemiya and A. Miyake, “Angle detection device and optical apparatus, such as exposure apparatus,” U.S. patent5,400,386 (March21, 1995).
  4. J. M. Hill, “Apparatus and method for angle measurement,” U.S. patent5,264,910 (November23, 1993).
  5. D. J. Hegyi, “System for determining the direction of incident optical radiation,” U.S. patent5,264,691 (November23, 1993).
  6. F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2905–2910.
  7. S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

2013 (1)

N. Mohammad and T. Karim, J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135, 0110131 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, M.

M. Amemiya and A. Miyake, “Angle detection device and optical apparatus, such as exposure apparatus,” U.S. patent5,400,386 (March21, 1995).

Arredondo, C.

F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2905–2910.

Hegyi, D. J.

D. J. Hegyi, “System for determining the direction of incident optical radiation,” U.S. patent5,264,691 (November23, 1993).

Hill, J. M.

J. M. Hill, “Apparatus and method for angle measurement,” U.S. patent5,264,910 (November23, 1993).

Karim, T.

N. Mohammad and T. Karim, J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135, 0110131 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liebe, C.

S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

Maeda, Y.

M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).

Miyake, A.

M. Amemiya and A. Miyake, “Angle detection device and optical apparatus, such as exposure apparatus,” U.S. patent5,400,386 (March21, 1995).

Mobasser, S.

S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

Mohammad, N.

N. Mohammad and T. Karim, J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135, 0110131 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).

Pineda, F.

F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2905–2910.

Shirai, M.

M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).

Terada, T.

M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).

J. Sol. Energy Eng. (1)

N. Mohammad and T. Karim, J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135, 0110131 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Yamada, Y. Maeda, M. Nakamura, T. Terada, and M. Shirai, “Photosensor for detecting the position of incident light in two dimensions using a pair of film resistors and a photoconductive element sandwiched therebetween,” U.S. patent5,517,017 (May14, 1996).

M. Amemiya and A. Miyake, “Angle detection device and optical apparatus, such as exposure apparatus,” U.S. patent5,400,386 (March21, 1995).

J. M. Hill, “Apparatus and method for angle measurement,” U.S. patent5,264,910 (November23, 1993).

D. J. Hegyi, “System for determining the direction of incident optical radiation,” U.S. patent5,264,691 (November23, 1993).

F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2905–2910.

S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the proposed CMOS light direction sensor demonstrating the wall and its operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the basic cell geometry for the light direction sensor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Curves for RD/B at different α and β versus incident light angle according to Eq. (9).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photomicrograph of the presented light direction sensor based on a standard 0.5 μm CMOS integrated circuit process.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Short-circuit photocurrents (top) and the ratio RD/B (bottom) versus incident light intensity measured at different incident light angles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photocurrents and ratio RD/B versus light angle with a 65mW/cm2 incident light.

Equations (9)

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IDIO=kPT=kP0AEFF=kP0wLEFF,
ILD=kP0w·AC¯.
ILR=αkP0w·DE¯.
ILB=βkP0w·(AC¯+DE¯+FG¯)AO¯AB¯=βkP0w·AC¯,
IL=ILD+ILR+ILB=kP0w[(1+β)·AC¯+α·DE¯].
IL=kP0w[(1+β)l·cosθ+αh·sinθ].
IR=kP0w[(1+β)l·cosθh·sinθ].
RD/B=|ILIR|Max(IL,IR).
RD/B=ILIRIL=(α+1)h·sinθ(1+β)l·cosθ+αh·sinθ.

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