Abstract

This study was designed to test the feasibility of en face mapping of the transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) response at photoreceptor outer segments and to assess the effect of spatial resolution on functional IOS imaging of retinal photoreceptors. A line-scan optical coherence tomography (LS-OCT) was constructed to achieve depth-resolved functional IOS imaging of living frog eyecups. Rapid en face OCT revealed transient IOS almost immediately (<3ms) after the onset of visible light flashes at photoreceptor outer segments. Quantitative analysis indicated that the IOS kinetics may reflect dynamics of G-protein binding and releasing in early phases of visual transduction, and high resolution is essential to differentiate positive and negative IOS changes in adjacent locations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

X. C. Yao, W. X. Cui, Y. C. Li, W. Zhang, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, F. Amthor, and X. J. Wang, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, Y. Zhang, Q. X. Zhang, S. J. Pittler, D. Deretic, and X. C. Yao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 060504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. X. Zhang, R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, and X. C. Yao, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 8139 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

J. Rha, B. Schroeder, P. Godara, and J. Carroll, Opt. Lett. 34, 3782 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. L. Schei, M. D. McCluskey, A. J. Foust, X. C. Yao, and D. M. Rector, Neuroimage 40, 1034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Nagy, B. Schonfisch, E. Zrenner, and H. Jagle, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, Opt. Express 15, 16141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Opt. Lett. 31, 2308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hogg and U. Chakravarthy, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 25, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

X. C. Yao, A. Foust, D. M. Rector, B. Barrowes, and J. S. George, Biophys. J. 88, 4170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Yao, A. Yamauchi, B. Perry, and J. S. George, Appl. Opt. 44, 2019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. C. Yao, D. M. Rector, and J. S. George, Appl. Opt. 42, 2972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

H. P. Scholl and E. Zrenner, Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 19, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

1989 (1)

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

1982 (1)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abramoff, M.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Affatigato, L. M.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amthor, F.

X. C. Yao, W. X. Cui, Y. C. Li, W. Zhang, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, F. Amthor, and X. J. Wang, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, W. X. Cui, X. J. Wang, F. Amthor, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, and X. C. Yao, Opt. Express 19, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. H.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arshavsky, V. Y.

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barrowes, B.

X. C. Yao, A. Foust, D. M. Rector, B. Barrowes, and J. S. George, Biophys. J. 88, 4170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Bennett, N.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bressler, N. M.

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

Bressler, S. B.

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

Brown, M. N.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chabre, M.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarthy, U.

R. E. Hogg and U. Chakravarthy, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 25, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cideciyan, A. V.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Cui, W. X.

X. C. Yao, W. X. Cui, Y. C. Li, W. Zhang, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, F. Amthor, and X. J. Wang, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, W. X. Cui, X. J. Wang, F. Amthor, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, and X. C. Yao, Opt. Express 19, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

Q. X. Zhang, R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, and X. C. Yao, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 8139 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, Y. Zhang, Q. X. Zhang, S. J. Pittler, D. Deretic, and X. C. Yao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 060504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

Danciger, M.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Deretic, D.

R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, Y. Zhang, Q. X. Zhang, S. J. Pittler, D. Deretic, and X. C. Yao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 060504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

Farber, D. B.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Fine, S. L.

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

Fisher, S. K.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G. A.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Foust, A.

X. C. Yao, A. Foust, D. M. Rector, B. Barrowes, and J. S. George, Biophys. J. 88, 4170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foust, A. J.

J. L. Schei, M. D. McCluskey, A. J. Foust, X. C. Yao, and D. M. Rector, Neuroimage 40, 1034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, W. H.

George, J. S.

Godara, P.

Green, W. R.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grieve, K.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanazono, G.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, W.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, K. P.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, R. E.

R. E. Hogg and U. Chakravarthy, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 25, 249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 19, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iannaccone, A.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Jacobson, S. G.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Jagle, H.

D. Nagy, B. Schonfisch, E. Zrenner, and H. Jagle, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. V.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

Johnson, P. T.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kappel, P. J.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kardon, R.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kreutz, W.

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, H.

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, T. D.

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G. P.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. C.

X. C. Yao, W. X. Cui, Y. C. Li, W. Zhang, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, F. Amthor, and X. J. Wang, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, W. X. Cui, X. J. Wang, F. Amthor, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, and X. C. Yao, Opt. Express 19, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. G.

Lu, R. W.

X. C. Yao, W. X. Cui, Y. C. Li, W. Zhang, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, F. Amthor, and X. J. Wang, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, Y. Zhang, Q. X. Zhang, S. J. Pittler, D. Deretic, and X. C. Yao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 060504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. X. Zhang, R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, and X. C. Yao, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 8139 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lu, Q. X. Zhang, and X. C. Yao, Opt. Lett. 36, 1866 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. X. Zhang, R. W. Lu, Y. G. Li, and X. C. Yao, Opt. Lett. 36, 4692 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, W. X. Cui, X. J. Wang, F. Amthor, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, and X. C. Yao, Opt. Express 19, 99 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maguire, A. M.

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

Massof, R. W.

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

McCluskey, M. D.

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Q. X. Zhang, R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, and X. C. Yao, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 8139 (2012).
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Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1)

V. Y. Arshavsky, T. D. Lamb, and E. N. Pugh, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 64, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

X. C. Yao, A. Foust, D. M. Rector, B. Barrowes, and J. S. George, Biophys. J. 88, 4170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. Struct. Mech. (1)

K. P. Hofmann, R. Uhl, W. Hoffmann, and W. Kreutz, Biophys. Struct. Mech. 2, 61 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (8)

Q. X. Zhang, R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, and X. C. Yao, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 8139 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Schallek, H. Li, R. Kardon, Y. Kwon, M. Abramoff, P. Soliz, and D. Ts’o, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 4865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. Iannaccone, R. G. Weleber, G. A. Fishman, A. M. Maguire, L. M. Affatigato, J. Bennett, E. A. Pierce, M. Danciger, D. B. Farber, and E. M. Stone, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1898 (2000).

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C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

D. Nagy, B. Schonfisch, E. Zrenner, and H. Jagle, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4664 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. W. Lu, C. A. Curcio, Y. Zhang, Q. X. Zhang, S. J. Pittler, D. Deretic, and X. C. Yao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 060504 (2012).
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J. Mod. Opt. (1)

X. C. Yao, W. X. Cui, Y. C. Li, W. Zhang, R. W. Lu, A. Thompson, F. Amthor, and X. J. Wang, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 843 (2012).
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Neuroimage (1)

J. L. Schei, M. D. McCluskey, A. J. Foust, X. C. Yao, and D. M. Rector, Neuroimage 40, 1034 (2008).
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Ophthalmology (1)

J. S. Sunness, R. W. Massof, M. A. Johnson, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, Ophthalmology 96, 375 (1989).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 5066 (2006).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

H. Kuhn, N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6873 (1981).
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R. E. Hogg and U. Chakravarthy, Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 25, 249 (2006).
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Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. P. Scholl and E. Zrenner, Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the time domain LS-OCT. (a) Top view of the system. CO, collimator; L1–L5, lenses, with focal lengths 80, 40, 80, 40, and 75 mm, respectively; OB, objective (10×, NA=0.3); CL1 and CL2, cylindrical lenses, with focal lengths 75 mm; BS, beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; Sti, green light stimulus; EOPM, electro-optic phase modulator. (b) Side view of blue rectangle area in (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LS-OCT images of frog eyecup. (a) OCT B-scan image. The image revealed multiple hyper-reflective OCT bands, including NFL, GCL, IPL, INL, OPL, ONL, ELM, IS, OS, RPE, and choroid. (b) Representative en face OCT image recorded at photoreceptor OS [indicated by the dashed white line in (a)]. The red rectangle area shows the area where IOS images were acquired. The white spot indicates the green light stimulus.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

IOS images and curves acquired at 200 fps. (a) Representative IOS images, with time interval of 50 ms. A 10 ms green light stimulus was introduced at time 0 (a2). Rapid IOS occurred immediately after the stimulation; mixed positive and negative IOSs were observed. (b) Separate averages of positive (red trace) and negative (blue trace) IOSs. The inset is enlarged curve of early IOS response. (c) IOS images with computationally controlled resolutions. Resolutions in (c1) to (c5) were 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 μm, respectively. (d) Spatiotemporal IOS pattern at position marked by the red dashed line in (c2). (e) Temporal IOS profiles of representative pixels marked by arrows in (c1). Red arrows indicated positive IOS pixels; blue arrows indicated negative IOS pixels. (f) Relationship between resolution and IOS magnitudes of representative pixels within stimulated area. Red curves represent positive IOS; blue curves represent negative IOS. Shadow areas show standard deviation. (g) The effect of resolution on IOS SNR. Red curves represent positive IOS; blue curves represent negative IOS. Shadow areas show standard deviation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

IOS images and curves acquired at 800 fps. (a) A sequence of IOS images. Image width is one quarter of image width in Fig. 3(a). Time interval of presented images is 12.5 ms. A 10 ms green light stimulus was introduced at time 0. (b) Separate averages of positive and negative IOSs. Red curves represent positive IOS; blue curves represent negative IOS. Shadow areas show standard deviations. (c) Enlarged image of (b) from 10 to 35 ms. (d) Onset time and half-peak time of average IOSs of nine different recordings. Red bars represent positive IOS; blue bars represent negative IOS.

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