Abstract

We present an asymmetric double-clad fiber coupler (A-DCFC) exploiting a disparity in fiber etendues to exceed the equipartition limit (50% extraction of inner cladding multi-mode light). The A-DCFC is fabricated using two commercially available fibers and a custom fusion-tapering setup to achieve >70% extraction of multi-mode inner cladding light without affecting (>95% transmission) single-mode light propagation in the core. Imaging with the A-DCFC is demonstrated in a spectrally encoded imaging setup using a weakly backscattering biological sample. Other applications include the combination of optical coherence tomography with weak fluorescent or Raman scattering signals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

2011 (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Zenteno, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Auger, M.

Bao, H.

H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 35, 9957 (2010).

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Daxhelet, X.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 35, 9957 (2010).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jaffer, F. A.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kim, J. W.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-T.

Kirk, R.

Lambelet, P.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lorenser, D.

Madore, W.

Marquis-Weible, F.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J. R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R.

Morneau, D.

Morse, T.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Na, J.

Namati, E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, M.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, C.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quirk, B.

Rivard, M.

Ryu, S. Y.

H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 35, 9957 (2010).

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, Opt. Lett. 33, 2347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D.

Sayah, A.

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shubochkin, R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Strupler, M.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tao, W.

H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 35, 9957 (2010).

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verpillat, F.

Wang, L.

Wolfe, W.

W. Wolfe, Introduction to Radiometry (SPIE Optical Engineering, 1998).

Yelin, D.

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zenteno, L.

L. Zenteno, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Zenteno, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. Sayah, C. Philipona, P. Lambelet, M. Pfeffer, and F. Marquis-Weible, Ultramicroscopy 71, 59 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Wolfe, Introduction to Radiometry (SPIE Optical Engineering, 1998).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (14605 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (9942 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (13392 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of an asymmetric DCF coupler achieved by fusing a DCF (top) with a MMF (bottom). The core, inner cladding, and outer cladding regions are shown in red, white, and blue, respectively. (b) Schematic diagrams (left) and photographs (right) of cross-sections of the DCF. (c) Representative fused-section. (d) The MMF. In (c), one can appreciate the absence of outer cladding, which was removed chemically. Scale bar: 100 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Characterization setup for the multi-mode transmission. (b) Comparison of multi-mode transmission in the visible range for symmetric (dashed line) and asymmetric (solid line) designs. (c) Comparison of single-mode (red) and multi-mode (blue) transmission for symmetric (dashed line) and asymmetric (solid line) designs in the near infrared range. MS, mode scrambler; PD, photodetector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Diagram of the SE imaging setup. PD, photodetector; BD, beam dump; DG, diffraction grating; C, circulator; galvanometer-mounted mirror (not shown). (b) Picture of the sample: a mouse embryo fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. (c)–(e) Images of the embryo with the A-DCFC [(c) single-mode (Media 1) and (e) multi-mode (Media 3)] compared with a DCFC [(d) multi-mode (Media 2)]. Scale bar: 1 mm. Gray scale in nanowatt.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Multi-mode transmission as a function of etendue ratio. The solid line shows the theoretical prediction, while the dots show experimental data points from couplers with different combinations of fibers.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ2=P2P2+P4,
Tij=PjPi,
dG=n2dScosθdΩ,
G=πSn2sin2α.
G=πS(NA)2.
T23=G3G3+G1=11+G1G3.

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